Monday, March 5, 2018

Revival Seeds Germinate March 2018 (part 1)

Revival Seeds Germinate


  1. Revival Seed in the 18th Century
  2. 19th Century Revival Stimulation
  3. American Influence on the 1860 Revival
  4. In and around the biggest Cape Revival
  5. Cape Revival Fruit
  6. Revival Seed in the early 20th Century
  7. Curbs of Spiritual Renewal
  8. Injustice and Oppression as Renewal Ignition
  9. Vanguards of Revival
  10. Prayer Waves from the Cape
  11. Late 20th Century Fore-runners of Revival
  12. Taking back lost Territory
  13. Seed Germination at the Turn of the Century
  14. Opposing Demonic Activity
  15. Jews and Muslims as a Priority
  16. . Run-up to a new Season of Spiritual Warfare
      17. Correctives in Church Practice

The present work is in one sense a revision of Seeds sown for Revival. Some repetition was therefore inevitable. In another sense it is a follow-up. Quite a lot of other material has been taken from my hitherto unpublished manuscript Spiritual Dynamics at the Cape plus other information, notably from my studies about the biggest Cape revival to date, making this a fairly new book.[1]
          At the end of the 20th century major prayer initiatives brought about historical changes, viz. the falling of the Berlin Wall and the resulting demise of Communism after seven years of prayer by Christians around the world. Ten years of prayer ushered in big changes in the Muslim world subsequently in a similar way. The twin tower event of 2001 highlighted the intrinsic violent nature of Islam. The progression into the so-called Arab Spring of January 2011 and the months thereafter, after which a few million Muslims turned their back on the religion, may have triggered the ultimate demise of the ideological base of Islam, just as the fall of the Berlin Wall did the same to atheist Communism.
          Various prophesies referred to a revival that will start at the Cape. The massive prayer event on 21 March 2001 at the Newlands Rugby Stadium, could be regarded as a fore-runner of that big revival. The run-up and aftermath of that occasion was a matter of united prayer which ultimately evolved into the Global Day of Prayer by May 2005. It was followed by the sharing of material goods to the poor and needy. Recent prophetic utterances - such as the one on 2 March 2017 in Seattle in the US about the drought in Cape Town - have gone viral in the age of technological advances.
          This book highlights some of the spiritual dynamics in the city where I was born and bred. Trying to outline here how there has been a built up over centuries towards the expected revival, we also endeavour to show how there has been a spiritual battle throughout.       
         Remorseful confession of sinful structures and policies as an important element of prayer has often proved to be a vital ingredient of spiritual renewal. Thus the Stuttgart Confession after World War 2 paved the war for the economic recovery of Germany. Another good example of yesteryear is the Rustenburg Confession of 1990. The confession was verbalised at a conference that represented the Body of Christ in South Africa unprecedentedly, ushering in the ideological demise of Apartheid and the subsequent democratic era in our country.
          That a water crisis is plaguing the Cape at this time may have a spiritual dimension in the light off its redemptive destiny. The settlement was founded in the 17th century as a halfway post where ships could get fresh water. Considering that the indigenous people were regarded as candidates to spread the gospel, this points to the Living Water of which Jesus spoke to the Samaritan woman in John, who would have been one of the most unlikely to spread the Good News in her day and age.
          Wary of wanting to idolize our city, one should keep in mind that the Freemason ideology - with the modern variations of New Age, unbiblical ecumenism and the Inter-faith movement – have been operating as cancer to prevent a greater expression of the redemptive destiny of it special origins so that Cape Town could also become the Father’s City.
            Drought is however also depicted in the Bible as a divine response to ‘wicked ways.’ Calamities could thus also become a blessing in disguise. The terrorist invasion and killing of innocent worshippers in the St James Church in July 1993 turned into God’s corrective which would ultimately lead to the unforgettable peaceful election of 27 April 1994. Across the board people were praying unprecedentedly that the country might be spared a violent revolution.
           The extended drought in vast areas of the country has definitely driven people to their knees like never before.  That is promising, but we should also keep in mind that there are still sinful abominations in place that could be preventing the free flow of the clouds – in a double sense – that would be poised to bring rain and revival.
          In 2017 the Western Cape has experienced a few crises, which caused Christians across the board to pray unprecedentedly. Fires on many a farm – some of which were possibly politically motivated when arson was discovered – were major hazards, driven by strong winds. This was doubly serious when a water crisis had already been signalled, with water levels of dams getting lower and lower.
          During the winter months of 2017 the rainfall was much lower than the average, aggravating the dire situation. That some measure of spiritual warfare was transpiring is a strong possibility at the very least. As if the above calamities were not enough, a gang war dragged on for months on end in many a Cape township.
            Believers rose to the challenge, praying also into the spiritual dimension of these phenomena. Using the new electronic communication whattsapp to great effect, the call for prayer has gone around the country unprecedentedly - for spiritual rain to bless our city, province and nation and for the Holy Spirit to ignite the eagerly awaited revival.
            Keeping 2 Chronicles 7:14 in mind, the Bible verse which has played such a big role down the years, [2]not only in the run-up to the Global Day of Prayer - a major condition of revival was not met. As a nation there are so many issues which might be considered ‘wicked ways’ from a biblical point of view. How does God view it that abortion on demand was legalised in this country in February 1997? (An estimated 1,5 million unborn babies have been killed since then?) Bitterness is e.g. still harboured by many people of colour. ‘White’ racial prejudice flamed up in recent years, showing that it has not been rooted out. The lack of willingness to forgive ‘Whites’ in general is another issue which surely also qualify for being wicked in God’s eyes.
            As a country we might be politically correct to have no qualms about same sex marriages, animism or ancestor worship. However, one needs special exposition of the Scriptures to get to such a conclusion because the Bible views these matters as abominations. And what about the xenophobia that has been raging in ‘Black’ townships especially – contrary to the biblical injunction to love the stranger in your gates? Add to that the bad example from officials of the Department of Home Affairs in this regard.
            From many a pulpit it has been proclaimed that the Church has replaced Israel. This may not be a problem to many Christians, but one would still have to interpret Scripture in a special way to support this doctrine. On the other hand, a change of our government’s attitude towards Israel in the age old Middle East conflict between the descendants of Isaac and Ishmael - to one that would facilitate reconciliation - might just be a trigger to ignite spiritual renewal. Such an attitude would be clearly more in line with the Bible than the present one of an evident bias.
          The pride and arrogance of the Church towards Israel has created the need for an expression of regret for the side-lining of the Jews. I believe that remorse and repentance on this score could play a significant role. Ideally, confession should follow. Confession has often been used by God to open people up for the Gospel. The Mother City of South Africa could be the advance guard of a special move of God in this regard. The Church must re-discover by and large that the Gospel is dunamis, the dynamite power of God unto salvation ….to the Jews first (Romans 1:16). Positive provoking of Jews to recognise Jesus as their long-awaited Messiah could also be a spark to ignite the dynamite wick of the big revival.
            It became known that various preachers and prophets have sensed some supernatural calling to come and serve at the Cape in recent years. The sceptic might still not be convinced. On a basis of faith I choose to see in this phenomenon possible germination of revival seed.
            Was the call of ‘40 Days of Worship’ – for which God used a Brazilian couple and a ‘White Friday’ on 24 November 2017, when 250 prayer and Church leaders from across the country converged on the old Parliament - genuine divine responses in spiritual warfare? I am very hopeful that the future will prove that this was no mere coincidence. A problem was that the above thorny issues were not thoroughly addressed at these occasions. We pray that it will be different at the ‘It’s time’ event on 24 March 2018 in Mitchells Plain.
            Finally, we have to face the fact that obedience to the Great Commission (Matthew 28:19,20) is needed. Far too many churches have all sorts of programmes but little or no involvement in evangelism and missionary activity.
            I contend that corporate confession, restitution and rectification where applicable - rather than attempts to defend doubtful positions – could go a long way to prepare the soil for the germination of the revival seeds sown. But God is sovereign. In spite of our efforts, God will build the house as He deems fit. After all, He relented when Moses pleaded with Him.                                                                                             I believe God will ultimately send the rain to fill the dams and for the fruition of a spiritual revival. I look forward to something that the world has not seen before, something which would usher in the return in glory of our Lord! Maranatha! Come Lord Jesus! 

Cape Town, February 2017

1.Revival Seed in the 18th Century

          The Cape of Good Hope was blessed in a special way before a colony was started here. The shipwreck of the Nieuwe Haerlem in 1647 resulted in decisive input. Leendert Janzoon and Nicolaas Proot, two from the stranded crew, In their report of their involuntary extended stint, they motivated the establishment of a halfway station not only with the lack of animosity towards strangers of the indigenous people, but also with the need of bringing the Gospel to the indigenous Khoi. The Cape first nation natives impressed them as possible candidates for ‘the magnifying of God’s Holy Name and for the propagation of the Gospel. Unintentionally they became the first activists fighting for the human dignity of the first nation of our country. Just under another century later, the next significant initiative on that score was that of the German missionary Georg Schmidt.

Moral Degradation at the Cape
Strong drink played a central role in the popular culture and leisure of the first settlers of the Mother City. Dutch sailors had a reputation in Europe for being heavy drinkers. The widespread alcoholism in Cape society has its early roots not only on the wine farms of the free burghers and other colonists, but even further back. Add to that the ‘dop’ system of remuneration whereby farm workers received goods in kind - of which cheap alcohol was an all-important ingredient.                                                                                                                      The situation was checked to a large extent by the pious French Huguenots who arrived from 1688. They brought with them divine blessings. Some of them had been Jews, of whom many had been coerced to convert to Christianity.

Evangelical Beginnings in the Mother City 
The first serious evangelistic effort at the Cape was that of the Dutch Reformed Ds Henricus Beck, a minister of the first church, the Groote Kerk, after his retirement in 1731. (To be fair, we should acknowledge that at least one dominee did attempt to learn to difficult Khoi language, such as the maligned Ds. Petrus Kalden, who got embroiled in the corrupt practices of the governor of his time at the turn of the 18th century.)  A group of evangelical believers gathered around Ds Beck. Those evangelical believers in the Mother City laid the foundation of what became a congregation on the corner of Long and Hout Streets.
          The widow Aaltje van den Heyden, one of Beck’s church members, played an important part in the mission work to the slaves after the death of her husband in 1740. She supplied the bulk of the funds for the Zuid-Afrikaanse Gesticht, an oefenhuis, an institution where believers could be discipled.. This facility would influence the religious life at the Cape during the next decades tremendously.

Two spiritual Giants
Two 18th century spiritual giants laboured at the Cape only for a short period apiece, namely Georg Schmidt and Dr Helperus van Lier.
          Georg Schmidt, the first missionary to South Africa, had been ‘banished’ from Germany to minister among the ‘Wilden’ at the Cape. (Count Zinzendorf, the leader of the fellowship of Herrnhut in East Germany that originally consisted of Protestant religious refugees from Bohemia and Moravia, had believed an unsubstantiated accusation that Schmidt had reverted to Catholicism in persecution. He did however probably sign some document to enable his release from incarceration. He was therefore sent to the Cape alone as ‘punishment’ and not with some companion as was the custom with Moravian endeavours elsewhere.
          Although he was here for not even seven years, Schmidt influenced the origins of our country profoundly. 

Spadework for Revival
Georg Schmidt was a powerful evangelist. On his voyage to the Cape various sailors were touched and converted. The pioneering labour of Ds. Beck provided the spade work for the dynamic Moravian missionary Georg Schmidt to start lively Christian groups after the arrival of the missionary at the Cape in July 1737. His sense of purpose is demonstrated by the fact that Schmidt moved on from the city to the Overberg quite soon after his arrival to get to the original reason for his coming - to evangelise the Khoi.  Both corporal Kampen, the commander at the military base at Zoetemelksvlei and his successor described Schmidt as their spiritual father.
          Schmidt came to the town in 1742 to greet his friend and benefactor, Captain Rhenius, who was about to leave the country. Schmidt’s visit with a convert resulted in an unprecedented interest among colonists and officials. During this visit to the Cape Schmidt picked up the letter of ordination from Count Zinzendorf. The Count encouraged him in the same letter to baptize his converts ‘where you shot the rhino’, i.e. at the river.                 In the conversion and baptism of the female Vehettge Tikkuie, one of Schmidt’s converts, there was a clear supernatural element. Quite prejudiced against females originally, he did not expect much, but Schmidt was very surprised by her answers. He had little choice than to baptize the intelligent Khoi woman, giving her the name Magdalena, surely hoping that she would spread the news of the resurrection of Jesus Christ like her biblical namesake. She had been exceptional any way, progressing quickly from the Dutch ABC manual, to read the New Testament in that language.
          Schmidt succeeded - against all odds and contrary to all expectations - to see Khoi converted, baptizing five of them in or at the Sergeant’s River. The Cape church authorities regarded this as unacceptable, because the ordination letter had been signed by someone from a foreign denomination.
          The Groote Kerk leaders asserted that Schmidt had defied them by baptizing five Khoi. He had however not understood this as a condition to minister among the Khoi. When Schmidt mentioned the baptisms in passing to the new commander of the military post of Zoetemelksvlei, a chain reaction followed. Schmidt was harassed and asked to leave because he had not been 'properly' ordained. His life nevertheless typifies in a powerful way that “Much more is wrought by prayer than this world dreams of...” He was ultimately forced to leave the Cape, hoping that he would return one day. Schmidt continued to pray for his flock in Africa until old age in the East German village of Niesky where he died in 1785.

An Islamic Response
In 1744, the same year in which Georg Schmidt left for Europe, Tuan Said (his real name was Said Aloewie of Mocca in Yemen) was brought to the Cape. Tuan Said was listed as a ‘Mohammedaanse priester’ who had been sentenced to life in chains. He served a sentence of 11 years on Robben Island before being brought to Cape Town where he became a policeman.  It was this job that allowed him to visit the slave quarters to propagandise Islam. Along with the other imams, he apparently countered the effects of South Africa’s first missionary effectively.  Tuan Said[s reputation to have commanded the power to disappear was not proved at all. Yet, he possessed ‘the fame of Sufi miracles (karamats)’ Thought to have originated from Yemen, Tuan Said worked as a caffer, a job which gave him access to the slave quarters. This accounts for the reputation he acquired for entering locked doors at night.
          When the sentences of the religious and other convicts expired, a few of them returned to Indonesia. But the majority stayed on at the Cape. When freed, these convicts formed part of the ‘Vrijezwarten’ (free Blacks) community. They were the people - apart from the religious convicts – who were greatly responsible for the consolidation of Islam at the Cape of Good Hope (Davids, 1980:42). Together with other slaves they met in homes for Islamic prayer meetings. Several of them possessed property and were financially independent and formed a small Muslim clerical class.  The ‘ulemma’ (clergy), made up of imams (priests) and shaykhs (learned men) was led by the Tuans (Malay word for teacher).  Davids (1980: 43) refers to: ‘...the verve and enthusiasm, with which they propagandized the religion...their patience, perseverance and hope in adverse conditions at a time when only the Dutch Reformed Church was officially allowed to propagate and worship freely.’ Muslims were worshipping privately in houses as early as 1777, possibly even earlier.

Christian slaves not to be sold
Approximately half of the 1775 Cape colony population of 12000 at the Cape were slaves of whom the bulk was Muslims. This was a matter of concern for the Dutch authorities who tried at this time to control their numbers through legislation.  In India legislation had been passed that they drew upon at the Cape. 
Many of the colonists actively encouraged slaves to become Muslims as a direct result of a ‘placaat’ (decree), which prohibited the sale of Christian slaves.  The slave owners at the Cape interpreted the decree as a threat, believing that their slaves would become free if they were baptized.  On top of it, Muslim slaves could be entrusted to the wine cellars on religious grounds, a bonus in trade terms.
          How pervasive the implementation and effect of the 1770 decree was on the prohibition of the sale of Christian slaves, is demonstrated by the Rev. Michiel Christiaan Vos, who has been described - definitely not unrightly so - as one of the pioneers of missions at the Cape. Vos possessed at least one committed Christian slave, one who hailed from Mozambique, named Maart.  But Vos did not baptize Maart. 

Another spiritual Giant
The fairly unknown Dr Helperus Ritzema van Lier, a Dutch Reformed minister of the Groote Kerk, has influenced mission history world-wide in a much bigger way than that for which he has received recognition.
Officially Dr van Lier was appointed as the third minister (also in rank) of the Groote Kerk in 1786, i.e. a year after the death of Georg Schmidt. He had already been impacted spiritually in a deep way before his departure from Holland. The evangelical revival which started in England under John Wesley, had swept into the Netherlands, Germany and Scandinavia.
          Very much ahead of his time, Van Lier opposed slavery and fought for the human rights of the indigenous Khoi while he attempted to learn their language. He found fertile ground among a group of believers at the Cape, including a group of pietist Lutherans. They were the spiritual descendants of those believers who had been impacted by the short stint of Georg Schmidt, 50 years prior to that. Quite soon after Van Lier’s arrival at the Cape, the legacy of Schmidt in Baviaanskloof at the Sergeant’s River worked through into Van Lier’s life when he was present at the deathbed of one of the missionary pioneer’s converts. He had seen how the Khoi believer died ‘in volkome rus en vrede van sy siel en in vertroue op die Here.[3] It made such a deep impression on Van Lier that he mentioned this in one of his letters to his uncle, Professor Petrus Hofstede, an influential academic in Rotterdam, who was at that stage still an opponent of the Moravian brethren. (Van Lier had been unsuccessful initially to convince his learned uncle to use his influence to nudge the Moravians to resume their Overberg missionary work.) He was already deeply moved that so many ‘heathens fell victim to the Muslims’, a direct consequence of a 1770 decree. (Many colonists actively encouraged slaves to become Muslims as a direct result of that ‘placaat’, which prohibited the sale of baptized slaves.)

Local Influence of the prayerful Van Lier
As early as 1788 various people in Cape Town and its surroundings set aside one day in the week for the religious teaching of ‘the heathen’.  Cape Town evangelicals were among the worldwide leaders in this regard at that time - not far behind the Moravians of Herrnhut and Bethlehem (Pennsylvania, USA). The church members met on certain days of the week for prayer and mutual edification, also giving religious teaching to the slaves and Khoi in their service. A local newspaper wrote at this time ...When people were still discussing in many parts of Europe whether slaves and heathen should believe and whether they could be taught, they had already started with that work in this Colony.’[4]  
          Van Lier did important spadework for what later became known as the South African Mission Society (SAMS).  The Lord used him to bring about an ‘omwenteling’ (revolution) in the attitude of many ‘White’ believers towards slaves and other people of colour. The prejudice against missionaries was still prevalent when Van Lier arrived, but the youthful minister dared to challenge the Cape Christians through his fiery sermons and personal example.
          The historian Theal reports that when the young dominee was preaching, people hardly dared to sleep in church because ‘at times it seemed as if he would jump from the pulpit’.  Furthermore, his preaching was full of earnest appeals and ‘…women were often moved to tears, and sometimes fell into hysterics’. 

Revival and spiritual Warfare
A missionary prayer circle of about 60 people got off the ground around the above-mentioned evangelical group. They committed themselves in an organized way to weekly prayer (later twice a week) for the outreach to the ‘heathen’ and the slaves. The influence of the Moravians operated at these prayer meeting because Van Lier saw to it that the Idea Fidei Fratrum of kort begrip der christelijke leer in de evangelische broedergemeenten (1778) by Bishop Spangenberg - and other writings of the Moravians, including reports of their mission work around the world – were read at these prayer meetings.
          Van Lier continued to lobby for missionary action, pleading for the establishment of a Dutch missionary society, for the admission of missionaries to the colony and urging the Moravians to re-enter the field. According to him, three enterprises were called for: ‘One among the Hottentots in the Colony, one among the Bantu in the East, and one among the indigenous peoples to the North’.

International Impact of Van Lier
Van Lier was a world Christian. When he heard in 1790 that the Dutch East India Company contemplated attempting to Christianize the various races in their vast possessions, he immediately wrote to his uncle, Petrus Hofstede, offering to collect 50,000 guilders in South Africa towards the capital required. That speaks a lot for Van Lier’s confidence in the sacrificial giving potential of the Christians of his era at the Cape.
          The young preacher Van Lier almost single-handedly set the evangelical world ablaze. His letters from the Cape to Europe were very influential indeed. He wrote his testimony - in the form of six letters in Latin to Rev. John Newton in England who set out to publish it. The title of the booklet is The Power of Grace, illustrated in six letters from a Minister of the Reformed church to the Rev John Newton. Van Lier’s humility came through when he insisted that a pseudonym Christodulus, (slave of Christ) and not his own name would be used with the publication of his letters to Rev. Newton. [5] Van Lier’s story about the influence of divine grace in his life seems to have made a lasting impression on John Newton, who belonged to the inner circle of (slave) abolitionists - especially when one considers that the famous hymn ‘Amazing Grace’ came from Newton’s pen.
          Various letters of Van Lier had the goal of getting the Moravians back to the Cape. His correspondence continued to have an impact in Europe. Through his evangelical zeal Van Lier, along with William Carey’s 1792 book An enquiry into the obligations of Christians to use means for the conversion of the heathens, definitely laid the foundations for a missionary society at the Cape. Van Lier possibly had some indirect influence on the founding of the London and Rotterdam missionary societies in 1795 and 1797 respectively.
          What a joy it must have been to welcome the three Moravians to his table after returning from sick leave, but his days were numbered.  He became critically ill. Tragically, Van Lier was not around to see the actual founding of the South African Mission Society (SAMS) in April 1799 at the Zuid-Afrikaanse Gesticht. He had died of tuberculosis in March 1793 at the age of only twenty eight.

A Revival Trailblazer
Vehettge Tikkuie of Baviaanskloof, baptized as Magdalena by Georg Schmidt, was possibly the first female church planter worldwide. When the three new missionaries - Christian Kühnel, Hendrik Marsveld and Daniel Schwinn - arrived there at Christmas 1792, she had gathered and held together a small fellowship of Khoi believers under the pear tree that had been planted by Georg Schmidt.
          The very first known proper Cape revival occurred in 1793 at the Moravian mission station Baviaanskloof (that was later renamed Genadendal) soon after the arrival of the three missionaries. This was clearly supernatural, one of the results of the prayer chain in Saxony’s Herrnhut - 24 hours a day seven days a week - in East Germany that started in 1728. In the diaries of these three missionaries one reads again and again of Khoi coming to them, desiring to know more, wanting to accept the Lord into their lives and wishing to be baptized. Evidently the Holy Spirit had prepared these people. On a daily basis the Genadendal missionaries were overwhelmed by questions such as ‘What must I do to be saved?’ It is striking that those who came to faith in Christ also sought protection against satanic forces. 
          The Holy Spirit prepared the Khoi, e.g. through dreams and visions. People came to Genadendal from everywhere, almost drawn to the mission station like by a magnet. Some of those from the Cape testified to the obvious: ‘...this is God’s work, no one can hinder it though many are trying.’  Within a few years, Genadendal was the second biggest town of the colony population-wise, bigger than Stellenbosch.

The Advent of Tuan Guru
In the spiritual realm the reply of the enemy of souls to the mini revival that followed the stint of Ds van Lier at the Cape was an Islamic giant. Tuan Guru was one of the prominent Muslim leaders whose shrine can be found at the Tana Baru cemetery in Bo-Kaap.  Tuan Guru was brought to Robben Island as a State prisoner in 1780 from Tidore, which was a flourishing Muslim Sultanate in the Moluccas. Tuan Guru had a thorough understanding of Islam, in contrast to other Capetonians who hailed from Indonesia. One of his first accomplishments was the writing of the Qur’an from memory for the use of the Cape Muslims. Tuan Guru also wrote M’arifatul Islami wal Imani (Manifestations of Islam and faith) - an Islamic manual for day-to-day living, which he had written in 1781 while he was imprisoned on Robben Island.
          To the influential Tuan Guru, meaning mister teacher, has been attributed a (renewed) prophecy of a ‘holy circle’ of shrines about this time. The grave of Shaykh Mattara, who died on Robben Island in 1754, was one of the first kramats (shrines) of the circle. By 1788 the Orang Cayen of Constantia (i.e. ‘men of power and influence’),  who were viewed as particularly dangerous to the interests of the company’, had long been buried.
           If Dominee Vos was a child of his time in respect of the ownership of slaves, so was Tuan Guru. He had a few slaves but they did not provide a secure income for his children. The Muslim historian Achmat Davids blasted the popular notion apart that Imams bought slaves merely to set them free. Just like the colonists, they purchased slaves ‘for security and as a means of investment’. Davids pointed out that Tuan Guru found it necessary in 1806 to purchase a fisherman slave ‘to improve his property value’.
          At the same time he also established Islam at the Cape firmly as the founder of the first mosque of South Africa in Dorp Street, Bo-Kaap.  In a sense he was one of the pioneers of Afrikaans. Teaching folk to write, this was the basis of the origins of Afrikaans, written in Bo-Kaap in Arabic script.

Mini Revivals in Roodezand
Karel Schoeman highlights the contributions of unsung heroes and ‘also rans’ in his book The Early Mission in South Africa. There one can read about the special contributions of Yda de Jongh, a house servant of Ds. M.C. Vos and about a young soldier John Irwin. Ds. Vos had left the Cape in 1802. Yda and Harmen Voster, a missionary and a widower, who married in that same year, assisted Mechtelt Smit(h) to keep the evangelical fire burning in Roodezand, which was later renamed to Tulbagh. Despite this, the young missionary volunteer John Irwin found the Christians there ‘in a cold and indifferent state’ a year later.  God used him powerfully, notably among children and young people, so that a mini revival erupted there. Harmen Voster reported the following in 1803, referring to the activity of John Irwin: ‘many young people among the Christians ... were entirely converted by an English missionary who came ... to pay a visit to the pious Mrs Smith. They wept and cried, What shall we do to be saved’. Voster's report is confirmed in a letter written by Mechtelt Smit to the missionary Kicherer, who was in Holland at this time. She wrote: 'in onze heidensche gemeente is mede een algemene opwekking'[6] People from a cross section of the community, are mentioned by name.

2.      19th Century Revival Stimulation

         How pervasive the ownership of slaves was, is illustrated by Reverend Michiel Vos, a very influential Cape compatriot of Dr van Lier. He taught his intelligent slave Maart, who hailed from Mozambique so well that the London Missionary Society (LMS) contemplated using him in his native country. But Vos did not baptize him. The clear support of Dr Johannes van der Kemp and Dr John Philip of the slaves and the indigenous Khoisan caused intense resentment towards all missionaries. Whereas the earthquake of 1 December 1809 at the Cape was quite clearly divine stuff that countered the moral decay at the Cape, the opposition of William Wilberforce to the slave trade and slavery in general in the British Parliament stimulated and encouraged Dr Philip, the leader of the London Missionary Society (LMS). Conversely, Dr Philip’s volumes of Researches in South Africa assisted Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson to get the final legislation passed which ultimately outlawed slavery in the entire British Empire. The run-up to the emancipation of the slaves were among the main causes of the Great Trek into the interior.  Piet Retief, a Voortrekker leader, stressed this in his Manifesto. A less known woman highlighted the fact that the missionaries put people of colour on an equal footing with them as an important grievance.

Missionary Diamonds formed
Dr Helperus van Lier, the mission-minded minister of the Groote Kerk, had suggested three forays of missionary endeavour. One of these was outreach to the Eastern Cape. Dr Johannes van der Kemp, leader of the first four London Missionary Society (LMS) pioneers, led this attempt. Strongly influenced by the French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, he became a forceful fighter for human rights of all people of colour. In no time he mastered the difficult Xhosa language, ministering to the Ngika (Gaika) tribe. From this tribe missionary diamonds came from the rocky soil of oppressive colonial history.
          A group of Xhosa-speakers from the Eastern Cape became inhabitants of Genadendal during this period,. A Gaika woman, whose husband had deserted her, was such a missionary 'diamond'. She was among the first ‘Blacks’ to be settled in Genadendal. There this woman, who later got the name Wilhelmina, became a follower of Jesus.
          In Genadendal the missionary spirit took hold of Wilhelmina. Soon she urged the Genadendal Moravians to start independent work among her own people.  She was appointed as nursemaid to the children of the missionaries. She also assisted with the teaching of the little ones at the ‘Kindergarten’ of Genadendal, setting out to teach the missionaries’ children the fundamentals of Xhosa, so that they could later bring the Gospel to her people. Johann Adolph, the son of Johann Gottlieb Bonatz, one of her pupils, later became one of the missionary pioneers among the red blanketed pagan Xhosa in the Ciskei.
          Wilhelmina, who subsequently married the Khoi believer Carl Stompjes, ploughed the ground for the equality of women, by doing work for which females would normally not have qualified. As female translator of missionaries she was perhaps one of the first worldwide.

The Covenant of Blood River
Even though the Covenant of Blood River took place in far-away Natal, it had an impact on the rest of Southern Africa. Some Christians have been referring scathingly to this event. The evident underlying racist supremacy of the Voortrekkers and the problematic identification with the Jewish nation cannot be denied, but there are other issues which impacted the country profoundly.
          Not many historians discerned the spiritual roots at work, namely that the covenant was also a protest against the liberalism which had moved into the ranks of the Church.[7] Ds. G.W.A. van der Lingen of Paarl, the son of Anthonie van der Lingen, one of the early LMS missionaries, was one of very few indeed – next to Andrew Murry (jr.) - who withstood that tide. It is no surprise that he became God’s instrument for introducing the blessed Pinksterbidure, the tradition of prayer services between Ascencion Day and Pentecost that became such a blessing to the Dutch Reformed Church.
          The Voortrekkers were devout Christians who firmly believed that God Almighty had a calling for them in Africa. Andries Pretorius, one of their leaders wrote just before his departure from Graaff Reinet to Ds G.W.A. van der Lingen: ‘Thus we shall become a people working for the honour of his name.’ Even though one has to concede that they were deluded en masse by a distorted exposition of Scripture, which made them believe that the British wanted to impose on them a Skrifvreemde vermengingsbeleid met die heidene (a policy alien to Scripture of mixing with heathens), it is clear that they lived by the Word of God, applying Yahweh’s promises to Israel for their own situation.
          The Trekkers saw the arrival of Andries Pretorius on 22 November 1838 as an answer to their prayers for a suitable leader. The devout and spiritually mature Pretorius was almost immediately elected as their military commander. (That he chose the mix-bred J.G. Bantjes as his journal writer demonstrates that he was not as bigoted as so many of his compatriots in respect of racial mixing.)
          Pretorius discerned that humbling before God was necessary even before they could proceed to the serious matter of making a covenant. In a fighting speech he pleaded with the combined meeting to remove anything which could cause disunity so that they could perform their duty with the help of God. He emphasised again and again ‘Eendrag maak mag’ (unity empowers). According to Bantjes, Andries Pretorius discussed the possibility of a covenant with Sarel Cilliers, a devout elder, who was later given the task to formulate the covenant.
          It is significant that the Voortrekkers promised that they would establish a temple to his honour if the Lord would give them victory over the enemy. It has been pointed out that Pretorius - who was a builder by trade - was happy with this formulation rather than ‘building a church’. This is an indication of a spiritual temple and not a material one. At the church service on 9 December 1838 Sarel Cilliers used Judges 6:1-24 to draw attention to the fact that Gideon was called to save Israel from the hand of the Midianites. For a whole week until the evening of 15 December the seriousness of the covenant with God was repeated at the evening devotions.
          The victory against tremendous numerical odds reminded indeed of Gideon’s diminutive army defeating the Midianites. Even more significant is the spiritual impact on Southern Africa. The Mfecane, during which an estimated 2 million ‘Blacks’ were killed in inter-tribal fighting, was brought to an end at this occasion. (Years later President Paul Kruger discerned that the Afrikaners got punished because they did not always obey the covenant. Defying a threat by the British of a charge of high treason to anybody attending a mass protest meeting at Paardekraal, halfway between Pretoria and Potchefstroom, the Blood River covenant was repeated on 8 December 1880 by Kruger and other leaders.)
          The commemoration was quite controversial down the years, stirring up racial animosity in due course. On 16 December 1930, the paper Umsebenzi and the Communist Party appealed to ‘Blacks’ to burn their passes on the commemorative day that was called Dingaan’s Day. The apartheid government later changed the public holiday to the Day of the Covenant and later to Day of the Vow.  It evolved into Reconciliation Day in the democratic era.

Pioneers of Charity at the Cape
The wives and daughters of evangelical reformers were the pioneers of charity in nineteenth century Cape society. They were allowed to play a more prominent role in public life than other women, where prejudice against the ‘weaker sex’ abounded. It is quite surprising to find that even in the family of the missionary Dr John Philip, the liberal fighter for the rights of Khoi and slaves, much of the same prejudice prevailed. His daughter Eliza (who later married the well-known pioneer of press freedom John Fairbairn) was forced by her father to give up her ambition to become a teacher ‘since she would fail to gain the social virtues desirable in a young woman’. Nevertheless, many missionary wives and daughters worked as teachers or ran the business of the mission, albeit generally unacknowledged and usually unpaid.
          Jane Philip, the wife of the superintendent, broke ground for the liberation of women. She was paid for the bookkeeping that she did for the London Missionary Society. This work was customarily done by men.
          In 1843 members of St Stephen’s started a system by which members contributed sixpence to one shilling (sterling)[8] a month to cover the cost of medicines in the event of sickness or the need of burial. For modern ears it may sound strange to read that the aim of the Ladies’ Benevolent Society, which was initiated by Jane Philip, was ‘to alleviate the sufferings of deserving persons’.
          Jane Philip also founded the Bible and Tract Society, distributing religious literature to the poor, as well as being prominent in establishing mission schools in Cape Town.

World Leaders in Church Networking
South Africans were among the world leaders in church cooperation when the Evangelical Alliance was formally started in 1857 in Cape Town. In fact, at this occasion the founders declared that an Evangelical Alliance existed in the Mother City in all but name already in 1842. (Cape Evangelical leaders got together in Cape Town in 1842 to work out a strategy to reach the lost of Southern Africa. Gerdener records how - within five years after the centenary of the start of Georg Schmidt’s missionary endeavour - ‘concerted action had arrived.’ At that stage there were 9 mission societies in South Africa, the bulk of which had to be contributed to the endeavours of Dr John Philip.[9])
          We highlighted the special roles of the Moravian missionary Georg Schmidt and Dr Helperus van Lier of the Groote Kerk in the 18th century. The towering figure of the second half of the 19th century – into the early part of the 20th century - was obviously Dr Andrew Murray. The well-known revival at Worcester in 1860 had a clear link to the prior revival in the US that started in New York in 1858.

Influence of Genadendal
The example of Genadendal had ramifications throughout the country. Wherever possible all new missionaries – from different societies - were taken to Genadendal to show them what the Moravians had achieved there. The Kweekschool at Genadendal, a teacher training institution, was the first of its kind, even before there was one for ‘Whites’. The other two German-based mission agencies (the Rhenish and Berlin Societies) were soon also sending their converts for training in Genadendal. Theological training was an integral part of the programme. The protégées from the institution at Genadendal left for places all over the colony, even to the Eastern Cape.
          The Rhenish Mission Society probably profited most. Wupperthal in the Ceder Mountains was started on the same principles with various branches of industrial work. J.G. Leipoldt laboured there with great patience and forbearance among the 200 Khoikhoi who were settled at the station. In 1840 a time of revival and spiritual refreshment dawned on that mission station. Soon there was not a single hut in Wupperthal in which there was not someone who had found inner peace through faith in Jesus. During the early part of 1842, no less than sixty adults were admitted to baptism at Wupperthal. The revival spread to the neigbouring (‘White’) farmers.
          The Presbyterians and others had moved further afield. Lovedale in Kaffraria, as the area around the Kei River was called, was started on behalf of the Glasgow Board. Rev. John Ross and John Bennie, a lay missionary, laid the foundations in 1824 of a mission station which was identified – in the mould of Genadendal – as a venue for a special educational effort on behalf of the natives.  It got the name Lovedale in honour of Dr John Love of the Glasgow Missionary Society. Thanks to the efforts of the Free Church of Scotland, which took over in 1844, Lovedale acquired great importance.
          Lovedale would become a prime educational institution, known for prominent scholars who were teaching there and especially because of ‘Blacks’, who became leaders in their countries of origin. From this institution the Fort Hare University in Alice developed. What Stellenbosch is to the Afrikaners as a tertiary institution of higher learning, Genadendal/Lovedale is to people of colour.

Lovedale matches Genadendal      
A major breakthrough transpired when a Black youth, a prodigy from Lovedale, was trained in Scotland to return in 1856 as Rev. Tiyo Soga. He was the first South African of colour to be ordained as a minister, ahead of Carl Jonas, the first Moravian, who hailed from the mission station Elim.
          The first missionary conference took place in Genadendal in 1865 where 20 participants of the Rhenish, Berlin, London, Dutch Reformed and Moravian groups gathered. In 1872 Andrew Murray suggested regular missionary conferences with all churches and missionary societies. Such conferences took place in alternate years at different centres of the Western Cape until the South African War. 
          Cape Town had the rare experience of Whites clamouring to get a seat in church to listen to a Black preacher. The occasion was the visit of Lovedale product Rev. Tiyo Soga, On Sunday, 16 September 1860, the Presbyterian pastor preached at Caledon Square in the morning the next day and in the evening at St Andrew’s to overflowing congregations. Rev. W. Thomas, his host during his stay, was the minister of the church at Caledon Square.  Twice Rev. Soga occupied the pulpit there. ‘The chapel was crowded to excess, and great numbers were not able to gain admission’ Soga preached at different other venues, for example at the Dutch Reformed Church in Wynberg. Rev. Thomas gave the following glowing testimonial: ‘I know not how it was, but the presence of our friend ever suggested to me the names of Cyprian, Tertullian and Augustine and others of North Africa., embalmed in the memory as among the noblest men of the primitive Church, and as the first-fruits unto God of the rich harvest which this continent has yet to produce’.

3.      American Influence on the 1860 Revival
          Taking into consideration that the 1857/8 revival in America played such a special role in the run-up to the one at the Cape in 1860, it is appropriate to highlight two giants of the revival there. Phoebe Palmer takes a very special place in this regard with her role in the holiness movement as important preparation of the revival. Dwight Moody was a good friend of the renowned Andrew Murray, the Cape revival giant.                                      
Run-up of the 1857/8 Revival in America                                                                                                                Phoebe Palmer and her sister began women's prayer meetings each Tuesday afternoon in 1837. By 1839 the Tuesday Meetings had become so popular that men were requesting to be a part of them. Eventually, word of these successful prayer meetings inspired similar gatherings around the country, bringing Christians of many denominations together to pray. Phoebe soon found herself in the limelight—the most influential woman in the largest, fastest-growing religious group in America.                                                                                        The group opened to all and many people from all walks of life, including clergy, began to attend. These meetings became a fulcrum for revival of Methodism in the United States.1839 was also the year that Walter Palmer retired from his physician's practice and joined Phoebe in the ministry. In the 1840s, Phoebe and Walter Palmer began an itinerant ministry where they spoke at churches, camp meetings, conventions, and conferences throughout the northeast United States and Canada. Both were speakers at these meetings, although Phoebe was the better known of the two. Her fame spread as she wrote several books over the years.  At her instigation, missions began, camp meetings evangelized, and an estimated 25,000 Americans converted.                                               1857 proved to be a significant year for the Palmers. Prayer movements were taking hold in Ontario, Canada. New York Christians heard about the Canadian revival just a week before the bank collapse of 1857. Prayer meetings were opened throughout New York and many business people took their lunch hours to pray and seek God's move in their midst. The revival in Hamilton soon swept into New York and to a large part of the nation. This became known as the Third Great Awakening or the Businessman's Revival.
Phoebe Palmer in Britain                                                                                                                          In 1859, Walter and Phoebe Pamer went to the British Isles, often speaking to crowds of thousands. In 1863 they returned to the United States and purchased the Guide to Holiness Journal to communicate their views. At one point they had forty thousand subscribers. Phoebe was its editor from 1864 until her death on November 2, 1874. It became one of the most popular religious journals in the United States. The journal promoted holiness, healing, and in later years an experience of the Holy Spirit.                                        Phoebe Palmer was also deeply concerned about social ills. She was an ardent supporter of the temperance movement and one of the founding directors of America's first inner-city mission - New York's Five Points Mission. As a prominent religious woman she was met with suspicion. Actually, she agreed with critics that it was not right for women to engage in "women preaching, technically so called." But, she added, "it is in the order of God that women may occasionally be brought out of the ordinary sphere of action and occupy in either church or state positions of high responsibility."                                                               Such an example inspired other women, like the Salvation Army's Catherine Booth and Frances Willard of the Women's Christian Temperance Union. Though she considered herself simply a "Bible Christian" who took Scripture very seriously. Her "altar covenant" gave rise to denominations like the Church of the Nazarene, the Salvation Army and the Pentecostal-Holiness Church. Phoebe Palmer was a tremendous influence on several people and organizations. She profoundly impacted the Salvation Army when Catherine Booth read her teachings and incorporated them into the Army's foundations. Many churches in the Holiness movement trace their roots back to Phoebe Palmer. She also worked with a group who started missions, opened an orphanage, and fed the poor.
Another spiritual Giant                                                                                                                     Another spiritual giant that can be linked to the scene at the Cape is Dwight L. Moody, an American evangelist connected with the Holiness Movement.  He was in many ways the complete opposite of the genius Andrew Murray, who grew up in an evangelical home environment with prayerful parents and who on top of that was impacted by a revival atmosphere while studying in Utrecht in the Netherlands.                                The teacher of Dwight Moody stated: "I can truly say, … that I have seen few persons whose minds were spiritually darker than was his when he came into my Sunday School class; and I think that the committee of the Mount Vernon Church seldom met an applicant for membership more unlikely ever to become a Christian of clear and decided views of Gospel truth, still less to fill any extended sphere of public usefulness…’ and furthermore that he saw him ‘holding a negro boy, and trying to read to him the story of the Prodigal Son. A great many words he could not read out, and had to skip.’ In 1857 Dwight Moody began to minister to the welfare of the sailors in Chicago's port, then gamblers and thieves in the saloons.                            After the American War of Independence Dwight L. Moody made revivalism the centre of his activities in Chicago by founding the Moody Bible Insitute. In June 1871 Moody met Ira D. Sankey, the Gospel singer, with whom he soon partnered. The hymns of Ira Sankey were especially influential at this time.
D.L. Moody in England                                                                                                                                  On his trip to England in 1872 D.L Moody became well known as an evangelist. He preached almost a hundred times and came linked up with the Plymouth Brethren. In the Botanic Gardens Palace, a meeting had between 15,000 to 30,000 people.                                                                                                                    This turnout continued throughout 1874 and 1875, with crowds of thousands at all of his meetings.  The famous London Baptist preacher, Charles Spurgeon, invited Moody to speak and promoted him as well. When he returned to the United States, crowds of 12,000 to 20,000 were just as common as in England. Northfield became an important location in evangelical Christian history in the late 19th century as Moody organized summer conferences which were led and attended by prominent Christian preachers and evangelists from around the world.
Moody’s link to the Student Volunteer Movement
In 1877, a student department of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was formed to direct efforts more specifically toward Christian work on college and university campuses. Luther Wishard, the first collegiate secretary of the YMCA, had a great personal interest in foreign missions, and his influence did much to tilt the student YMCA in that direction.
              The first unofficial group of student volunteers for foreign missions was formed in 1888 at Princeton College. Five students, including Robert Wilder, drew up and signed a declaration of purpose. Calling themselves the Princeton Foreign Missionary Society, these students met regularly on Sunday afternoons at the home of Robert Wilder's father.                                                                                                                       In 1885, Luther Wishard discussed with Dwight L Moody the possibility of holding a Bible study conference for undergraduate students. Moody agreed to the proposal, and in July 1886 two hundred and fifty-one students from eighty-nine colleges and universities met together for nearly a month. Although Robert Wilder had graduated from Princeton in 1885, and was no longer an undergraduate student, Luther Wishard, knowing of Wilder's missionary interests, specifically invited him to the Northfield conference.                           The Northfield Conference was designed to provide for Bible study, evangelistic addresses, and discussion of methods for YMCA college work. Although several of the 251 delegates had come to Northfield already committed to a missionary vocation, missions were scarcely mentioned from the platform during the first two weeks of the conference. Those interested in missions met daily for prayer, led by Robert Wilder. They spread their heart for missions by word of mouth among the delegates.
Missionary Recruitment                                                                                                                     It was decided to form a deputation of volunteers to visit colleges across North America in an attempt to extend the influences of the Northfield missionary movement. (The model for this deputation was the Cambridge Seven, a group of prominent British university students who had decided to become missionaries to China following the evangelistic campaign of Dwight Moody at Cambridge University in 1884. Members of the Cambridge Seven, travelling throughout Britain and the United States, had had considerable impact on various campuses.)           Moody invited Andrew Murray as a speaker to an ecumenical missionary conference to be held in New York in April 1900. He would not attend the conference himself. After falling ill in November 1899, he died on 22 December 1899.

4. In and around the biggest Cape Revival

          The Cape Colony prior to the 1860 Revival was a spiritual wilderness. In the first 150 years of Dutch rule only five Dutch Reformed congregations had been established, all within a 130 Km radius of Cape Town. Most of the colonists had no access to pastoral guidance or opportunities for religious services. With other denominations the situation was worse.

Cape Efforts to stimulate Revival
As early as 1847 the Cape Dutch Reformed Church Synod recommended that communal prayer meetings be held at least once a month in every congregation. But they were very poorly attended. Ds. Gottlieb van der Lingen, the minister of the Dutch Reformed Church in Paarl, warmed up to the idea, yearning for revival after he had made a detailed study of past revivals. Reports were also coming in from the British Isles. He had been rather sceptical of the early reports from America that he initially claimed to be nothing more than ‘church and spiritual quackery’. Also at Presbytery level he shared his heartfelt longing for this blessing, vocalising in 1858: ‘Oh, if it would behove Him to pour out the Spirit of brokenness in prayer and the Spirit of Godly peace as … in North America’.                                                                                                                                   Rev. John Murray, brother of the famous Andrew, ultimately became a co-founder of the Kweekschool, the Dutch Reformed Seminary at Stellenbosch in 1859. At this occasion Professor Nicolaas Hofmeyr complained that no effort was made to bring all leading Christians of the country together. When Ds. Jan Neethling arrived in Stellenbosch to take a post as pastor of the local Dutch Reformed Church a year earlier, this was the beginning of what became known affectionately as the triumvirate - ‘a tribute to the harmonious way they tackled religious and educational ventures as a coordinated threesome’.
          Two of the three, Nicolaas Hofmeyr and Jan Neethling, ably assisted by Andrew Murray (jr.), already had a big hand at the synod of 1857 in swinging the mood for missions after a very somber report had been delivered. The Stellenbosch Seminary organised the Church cum Missionary conference in Worcester of 1860.
          God overruled the laudable but carnal efforts of the Dutch Reformed clergymen through the revival that would follow in the years after 1860.

A Call to Prayer
A call to prayer on behalf of the South African Evangelical Alliance was issued in August 1859 by Ds. Abraham Faure (DRC), Rev. George Morgan (Presbyterian) and Rev. James Cameron (Methodist): ‘… a revival in our faith is necessary...’ The three pastors invited their minister colleagues to preach a series of sermons on the character of God, the role of the Holy Spirit and the need for both corporate and private prayer for the outpouring of God’s Holy Spirit.  ‘We earnestly beseech you to faithfully and fervently pray one hour every week - with others, or alone that God by His Grace may visit our land and give us the blessing of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.’ An 85-page book entitled ‘The Power of Prayer’ was widely circulated throughout 1859. Several articles on prayer and revival were published in De Kerkbode and De Wekker.
Apathy Challenged
The effect of these efforts was limited because the material was not read by the rank and file church member.  While many of the pastors were enthusiastic about prayer and revival, the average person in the pew remained disinterested and unresponsive.                                                                                                                                   Yet, God’s spirit worked in diverse ways, such as at one of the quarterly visits of Ds. William Robertson in Montagu, where there was as yet no resident Dutch Reformed minister. At his visit around May 1859 he shared about the revival in America.[10] Thereupon a prayer meeting was established there, which however never exceeded three persons prior to May 1860. The weekly prayer meeting in Worcester similarly seldom had more than three or four participants. In the meantime a dedicated intercessor from a group of intercessors in Worcester ‘treaded a footpath to a hill outside the town to pray more effectively.’                                   A committee organized a conference fairly quickly. Delegates from the Dutch Reformed, Congregational, Lutheran, Methodist, Moravian and Presbyterian Churches converged on Worcester in April 1860 for the epoch-making conference. Worldwide the conference on revival was one of the first of its kind. Three hundred and seventy preachers and laymen from different denominations attended. The conference can be regarded as the immediate run-up to the revival. Just fifty days later, those churches that sent delegates, experienced a deep move of the Holy Spirit.
The Run-up to a Revival
The 1860 revival of Worcester that started in the church where the well-known Dr Andrew Murray was the minister has been described as a result of teamwork. His father, Ds Andrew Murray (sr), had prayed for revival every Friday evening since 1822. By 1860 he would thus have prayed for 38 years.  The gifted young dominee Andrew Murray, who had just come to Worcester prior to this, would be impacted during the revival, along with thousands in the Western Cape. The younger Andrew Murray appears to have matched his father as a prayerful minister of the Word. About his life the secular Dictionary of South African Biography, Volume 1 (p.578) wrote: ‘The golden ray of prayer illumined all he did...He believed that nothing that was amiss and demanded correction could not be corrected or endured by prayer.  This is confirmed when one takes a closer look at the titles of his 250 books. There one finds titles like De Kracht des Gebeds (1860), Pray without ceasing (1898) and The prayer life (1912). He also published a volume in 1885 called De School des Gebeds. There he highlights the power of intercessory prayer as a great gift from God. God listens to those he loves, and works all things for their good.
          As a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church in Wellington (South Africa), Andrew Murray had a vision of winning Africa for Christ. This vision motivated his desire to pray and live a life that was totally surrendered to God. In his book With Christ in the School of Prayer, Murray presents New Testament teaching on prayer and encourages the reader to move past simplistic prayers that are ineffectual. He longed that the Church would know that God rules the world by the prayers of His saints, that prayer is the power by which satan is conquered. He believed that through prayer the Church on earth has tremendous authority even over heavenly powers. Firmly living from this belief, Murray inspired the Church to access the powers of heaven through prayer and to bring the Gospel to the world through the power of the Holy Spirit.                                              Murray's words were important seeds sowed in the history of the prayer movement. Germination would be evident in following generations. His personal vision of 'Africa for Christ' would eventually become the mission statement for the Transformation Africa prayer movement.

The Eruption of the 1860 Cape Revival
A significant contribution to the 1860 Worcester revival came from the nearby town of Rawsonville.  From approximately 1850 onwards, two ladies in this town had been praying regularly for revival.       Montagu was the first place to experience spiritual renewal.  A prayer revival began in the Methodist Church where meetings were held every night and on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings, sometimes as early as 3 a.m. People who had never prayed before, began to pray. Young and old cried to God for mercy and continued until midnight. Dutch Reformed people left their own prayer meetings, they crowded into the Methodist Church.
          After the big interdenominational conference of April in Worcester, people flocked to the early morning prayer meetings there. By May 1860 there were three prayer meetings taking place every day. There was also great conviction of sin and confession. People came from Worcester, Wellington and Paarl to observe and experience the phenomenon.  Within a matter of weeks the whole town was revived. For weeks, the village of Montagu experienced great conviction of sin. Strong men cried to God in anguish. Six prayer meetings were taking place throughout the village. The report reached Worcester, and prayer meetings began there as well. Whole families, both ‘White’ and native African, were humbled before God.
          He noted that the Worcester ministerial predecessor of Andrew Murray (jr.) also prayed for revival when the great theologian was not yet spiritually ready. Prior to his arrival in Worcester, Andrew Murray wrote in a letter to his brother: ‘My prayer for revival so much hampered by the increasing sense of unfitness for the work of the Holy Spirit... Pray for me, my dear brother’.

Sparks igniting a Revival
At the big Worcester conference of April 1860, the Presbyterian Dr James Adamson set the tone with a report at the Conference of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in America, including the conditions for revival.  Rev. Andrew Murray (sr.) was so overawed by the topic that he burst into tears. A passionate prayer by his son and namesake stirred the hearts of many, so much so that it has been suggested that this was a spark that triggered the revival. The fervent prayer of a young ‘Coloured’ girl from a Hex River farm provided another spark.
          The movement of 1860 stirred every part of the community and soon it was widespread. All races, even on remote farms, experienced conversions. Prayer meetings started in many towns with people from all races crying out to God not to pass them by.  The revival spread out to other parts of the Cape Province, the Free State and Transvaal.

Another special Worcester Event                                                                                                   Andrew Murray was inducted in Worcester on 27 May 1860.  Soon thereafter the revival broke out in full force. The role of young people has to be singled out.
                   The fervent prayer of a young farm girl
                   provided another spark to ignite the revival
During a prayer meeting in Worcester, a 15-year-old girl cried out “O, how I love Jesus!”
          In the youth meeting in the church hall an unnamed ‘Coloured’ teenage girl dared to call for a song before her prayer, as was the custom. After a racially prejudiced hesitation, which would have been typical for the age, Ds. J.C. de Vries, the youth minister, allowed her to go ahead. During her prayer, a sound came from afar, getting increasingly louder until the building felt as if it was shaking. Everybody hereafter seemed to have prayed simultaneously, almost oblivious of the other participants.     While the young people of the Dutch Reformed Church knelt in earnest prayer, one of the church elders passed by. Hearing the noise, he ran to fetch their new pastor.
          Each person seemed so burdened by his load of sin that they continued to call upon God for forgiveness and cleansing with an intolerable weight of guilt, sin and shame. When Andrew Murray entered wearing his clerical robes, he found the room alive with spontaneous prayer. The young minister was clearly agitated. He paced the room, calling loudly, “People, silence!” But the prayer did not stop. Murray shouted again, “People, I am your minister, sent from God! Silence!” It was as if no one heard him. Everyone continued praying, calling on God - in some cases rather frantically or hysterically. Murray directed the leader to call a hymn. No one sang the song. The young people, traditionally obedient and respectful, could not be silenced. Prayer continued unabated. Andrew Murray then proclaimed, “God is a God of order, and here everything is confusion!” With that, he left the room.                                                                      Spontaneous prayer gatherings occurred nightly. Simultaneous intercession replaced refined traditional prayer. Fervent prayer gatherings continued into the early hours of the morning.

Help Arrives                                                                                                                                               Soon hereafter, Andrew Murray led a Saturday evening meeting. He read from Scripture, spoke a few words, and offered a prayer. He then opened the meeting for others to pray. An observer records, ‘During the prayer which followed this, we heard again the same sound in the distance. It drew nearer and nearer and in a sudden moment the whole gathering was praying....Mr Murray descended from the platform and again moved up and down among the people, trying to quiet them’. The pastor sought to restore order. Andrew Murray was not yet ready to accept this phenomenon as the Holy Spirit’s work. However, at this juncture, the Lord intervened to assist Murray. That evening a stranger had been standing at the door, observing the meeting. As Andrew Murray sought to use his authority to silence the prayer, the stranger tip-toed forward, touched the clergyman gently, and said, ‘I think you are the minister of this congregation. Be careful what you do, for it is the Spirit of God that is at work here. I have just come from America, and this is precisely what I witnessed there’.

Andrew Murray joining the Revival                                                                                                   Murray’s father had prayed for 38 years for revival in his congregation of Graaff Reinet. The younger Murray echoed those prayers. His sermons had been bemoaning the deadness of the Church. He preached about the Spirit. Yet, when the Spirit brought revival, Andrew Murray did not recognize it. He even sought to quench the Spirit’s move. Was it because the Spirit’s manifestation did not match his preconceived theological concepts? Or, as one writer suggests, ‘Could it be that his ego was hurt because the moving of the Spirit had not happened as a result of his own preaching?’ Was he offended ‘that he had not been guide it’?
            The encouragement of the visiting stranger was what Andrew Murray needed. At last he recognized that the Spirit was in control. There was no need for human restraint. From that time, Andrew Murray joined the revival whole-heartedly and he was greatly used. The lives of many were permanently transformed. Soon there were prayer meetings every evening.                                                                                                  The meetings started with a long silence. After one or two prayers, everyone would pray simultaneously. Sometimes the prayer meetings would go on until 3.00h the next morning. They moved the meetings to the school hall, but they outgrew it when many came even from the countryside to attend the meetings.  Christians committed their lives to the Lord.
From Murray’s own congregation in Worcester, fifty young men offered themselves for the ministry of the Word. Previously it was almost impossible to find men for the work. That event was a watershed in Andrew Murray’s ministry. He learned that the Spirit, just like the wind, blows where it wills (John 3:8). We cannot dictate the Spirit’s move. Rather, in co-operation we must yield to the Spirit. We cannot engineer revival, nor can we manipulate the Spirit. The lessons that Andrew Murray learned from this experience permeated all of his subsequent teachings and writings in books such as The Spirit of Christ and The Full Blessing of Pentecost.

An Eyewitness Account
One of the pastors who experienced the revival, Servaas Hofmeyr, the Dutch Reformed minister of Montagu, was inducted there on 29 September 1860.  He, the younger brother of Ds. Nicolaas Hofmeyr, wrote: ‘Before the days of Revival the situation of our congregation was lamentable. Love of the world and sin; no earnestness or heartfelt desire for salvation; sinning and idleness were the order of the day for most … when the Lord started to move among us. How intense were the prayers for revival and the cries for mercy! ‘I am lost!’ cries one here, ‘Lord, help me!’ cries another. Anxious cries were uttered, heart rendering testimonies of conversion were heard. Visions were seen … Corporate prayer, even behind bushes and rocks, on mountains and in ravines, men, women, greyheads, children, gentlemen, servants all kneeling on the same ground crying for mercy. It was all the Spirit of God, and not for a few hours or days, but for months.’

Farm Workers impacted
Amongst the first to be impacted by the revival were the 'Coloured' farm workers near Worcester. A written account of these farm workers described them as:  ‘debased and shrivelled with drink and drunk all day long, sullen wretched creatures…’ It was this least expected quarter that the revival hit most powerfully.  On remote farms people experienced conversions. Early in the morning and late at night people would come singing to God’s house. Repentance, renewal and rebirth followed. Devotion was deepened, vision widened. Cases of heartfelt conversion occurred daily.                                                                                                                                     What was very special about the Worcester events was the divine correction in respect of societal prejudice. God had to teach the Cape Church that he also wanted farm workers and those on the outskirts of the Church to enter the fold. ‘God chose to bless those on the fringe of society who had most likely not been baptized or even entered a church’

Revival Fires spread from the Boland
Within weeks several prayer meetings started, also on remote farms, none knowing about the divine movement in other places.
          Hettie Bosman, a teacher from the Karoo, was visiting Worcester. She had been praying for revival for years. During a special prayer meeting she fell unconscious and was carried to the parsonage where Andrew Murray prayed for her. She rose with an extraordinary experience of joy. (Later she married Alexander McKidd, a pioneer missionary, taking revival with her to the mission field.) A hunger for revival broke out in all directions. The Stellenbosh Seminary, started by John Murray and Nicholas Hofmeyr in 1859, could hardly cope with all the new students after the revival.
          It is striking that the Worcester revival spread from the conference of Christian leaders to different church backgrounds. Within months the move of God spread to Wellington, Swellendam and even to Cape Town, more than 100 Kilometres away. The next year the revival also moved eastward across the Karoo and to the Northwest as far as Calvinia. Fifty days later, the churches which had sent delegates to the Worcester conference, experienced the special move of the Holy Spirit.

A new Wave of Blessing
The Evangelical Alliance called for a week of prayer between 5 and 13 January 1861. During this week the Cape was on its knees as never before. In response, God sent a new wave of blessing thereafter.
          The Revival moved to Beaufort West with a tremendous force in January 1861. Prayer meetings, often lasting all day, were held four times a week and meetings were held everywhere on the Lord’s day, in homes, under a tree, at farm houses. The church was too small for the crowds. God’s grace was flowing so widely that farmers in the remotest areas were touched. The revival spread to other towns in no time, even to Bloemfontein - many hundreds of kilometers away.
          Missionary activities arose like mushrooms. It was reported how a man of Calvinia left his home, supported by other Christians, to go and live among the Coloureds so that those ‘neglected’ folk could also hear the gospel.
          In Calvinia Ds. Nicolaas Hofmeyr and Rev. van der Rijst, a missionary, had been praying for revival for years. While Ds. Hofmeyr was the minister, he could not motivate his congregation to attend prayer meetings. During his 6-year ministry there, he could not persuade a single parishioner to attend a prayer meeting at the newly built church. Not even once! In addition to the resistance to prayer he also battled against an intense opposition to missionary work.
          At the revival, however, the Holy Spirit swept away the fierce resistance.  Spontaneous prayer meetings started in the congregation, growing as a movement without the help of the clergy. Within weeks, several prayer meetings started, none knowing about the other, yet they shared the blessing of revival.
          Missions and evangelism got off the ground big time. Within ten years after the revival had started in Worcester, the Dutch Reformed Church had more than 12 mission stations established.

Prayer Gatherings at Pentecost
In one of the home cell groups, Gideon Malherbe, a son-in law of Ds. van der Lingen, came up with the suggestion that the cells should combine each evening for communal prayer during the ten days between Ascension Day and Pentecost. They intended to follow the example of the first Christians who had met regularly for prayer while waiting in Jerusalem to be baptized with the Holy Spirit. They too would plead down the promise of the Father.                                                                                                                          Without seeking Van der Lingen's approval or participation, this cell group published an invitation in De Kerkbode for all existing prayer groups in Paarl to participate in corporate prayer between 9 and 19 May, 1861. Van der Lingen was at first reluctant to join meetings. There was a gradual built-up of expectation during that week, mingled with cries for mercy. He not only finally relented, but he ultimately became God's anointed vessel of blessing on Pentecost Sunday, 1861.
The prayer meetings were well attended. On Pentecost Sunday there was a great expectancy. They were not disappointed. During the afternoon service there was a powerful presence of God when Rev. van der Lingen prayed. Subsequently, a special revival broke out. A year later it was Ds. van der Lingen himself who suggested that the congregation should meet for communal prayer during the ten days between Ascension Day and Pentecost. When this news began to spread to neighbouring congregations, they too decided to follow Paarl's example. Over the next few years more and more congregations would join in. As a direct result, the 1867 Dutch Reformed synod advised all congregations to conduct 10 days of prayer in the run-up to Pentecost every year. The tradition became a major blessing to the nation. The Pinksterbidure would impact Afrikanerdom for many decades. Many Afrikaners look back to some Pentecost prayer season as the time when they were converted.

Revival in the Mother City
Like Count Zinzendorf, the founder of the renewed Moravian Church, Andrew Murray had a great love for and interest in children. The very first book he wrote was Jezus de Kindervriend (1858). At the Cape, the Dutch Reformed Church penetrated into the fisherman families of Roggebaai near to Green Point, where they opened the second church school on 15 April 1861.
          Dr Andrew Murray’s booklet Abide in Christ was originally written in Dutch, a daily devotional for a month. It was meant as a manual and guide for the many converts in Worcester, when Murray saw them becoming gradually less committed. Within four years, more than 40,000 copies were sold. However, he only published a translation of it eighteen years later, the first of his English books. Andrew Murray would impact the Christian world like few before or after him. The pattern of 31 or 52 chapters (intended respectively for daily use during a month or once a week for a year) was a favourite with him, a model that would be emulated by many to this day for devotional diaries or prayer books. (Abide in Christ started a revival in China.)
          Dr Andrew Murray served as the minister of the Groote Kerk in the Mother City from 1864. In February 1865 Andrew Murray started services in Roggebaai every Thursday evening with a ‘full house’ and also in Van de Leur Street in District Six.  Soon a parish of the mother church was started in Hanover Street, at that time called Kanaalstraat, where race and class discrimination started to play a role. The ‘Dreyerkerk’ as the church became known later, was obviously intended for poor ‘Whites’ and ‘Coloureds’. For the parishes of Roggebaai and Hanover Street, ‘the services could not be long enough in duration.’

A clear Link to Missions                                                                                                                            An interesting view expressed at the 1860 conference in Worcester was: ‘the home of every Christian should be a mission station’. The revival of 1860 had a clear link to missions in its aftermath. A special innovation – worldwide perhaps a first – was that the conference was conducted in two languages on alternate days, Dutch and English.  The first missionary conference took place in Genadendal in 1865 where 20 participants of the Rhenish, Berlin, London, Dutch Reformed and Moravian groups gathered. In 1872 Andrew Murray suggested regular missionary conferences with all churches and missionary societies. Hereafter such conferences with delegates of 5 denominations plus mission societies were held at different centres.                                        The most glorious result of the 1860 revival was the post-revival missionary drive; an upsurge of missionary zeal. One of the very first missionary extensions of the Cape Revival was the outreach to the Zoutpansberg region. Two of the eleven missionaries recruited in 1860 by Rev. William Robertson were willing to serve as missionaries beyond the Vaal River. Missionaries soon travelled as far as Zambia and Zimbabwe (then called Rhodesia) to preach the gospel and establish mission stations.
            The Holy Spirit made believers aware of their Christian responsibility towards their domestic servants and farm workers and they responded actively by giving liberally for outreach programmes. Per capita, South African Christians gave more to missions than any other country in the world in that specific period. Within 10 years, twelve mission stations were established in and beyond the Cape Colony, in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi, and as far as the Sudan.
          One of Andrew Murray’s classic statements of the early twentieth century is that ‘God is a God of missions.’ He wrote powerfully in his booklet The Kingdom of God in South Africa (1906): ‘Prayer is the life of missions. Continual, believing prayer is the secret of vitality and fruitfulness in missionary work. The God of missions is the God of prayer.
          Andrew Murray summarized the link between the Holy Spirit and missions in the same booklet as follows: ‘No one can expect to have the Holy Ghost unless he is prepared to be used for missions. Missions are the mission of the Holy Ghost.’
             The first of the triennial General Missionary conferences was convened in 1904. It was very much prepared through prayer. These conferences contributed greatly in the run-up to the world
            General Missionary conferences
      contributed greatly to the 1910
      world event in Edinburgh
event in Edinburgh in 1910. (An interesting fact is that William Carey had proposed holding a missions conference at the Cape of Good Hope a hundred years earlier. This was also the reason for the global Lausanne Consultation to be held in Cape Town in 2010.)
          It is surely no mere co-incidence that revivals broke out in different parts of the world in the years hereafter - in such divergent countries as Wales, Norway, India and Chile. The Cape was used in this way by God to make missionary endeavour a worldwide priority. [11]

Learning from our Forefathers!
Andrew Murray became arguably South Africa’s foremost theologian of the 19th century. He discerned the danger of a fading of the effects of the 1860 revival, which led him to write one of his most important works, Blijf in Jesus (later translated as Abide in Christ). Andrew Murray was a man of rare gifts and deep spiritual insight, yet he almost quenched a genuine revival. He was raised in a home where his father had faithfully prayed for almost 40 years for revival. Nevertheless, for a short time Andrew stubbornly opposed the long-awaited answer to his father’s prayers. When personally confronted with revival manifestations in his own church, he opposed them.
          Andrew Murray’s experience warns us not to be dogmatic about what is of the Spirit and what does not fit the bill. He expected things to proceed in a more traditional manner. An outsider had to warn him not to resist the work of the Holy Spirit.
            We too might have our own conceptions about how the Spirit should manifest itself. As believers, we also have our 'norms' of Christian practice and worship. New forms of expression can make us uncomfortable. We may quickly condemn an unfamiliar practice as of the flesh and not of the Spirit. In rash judgement, we risk repeating Andrew Murray’s experience in his encounter with the Holy Spirit. Let us heed the biblical warning Do not quench the Spirit (1 Thess. 5:19). We must be willing to learn from the experiences, insights, and errors of our spiritual forefathers, to be prepared for the next move of God.
            The application for revival is clear. If satan is duplicating the outward signs of the Holy Spirit’s presence, or if others are mimicking it, we should not try to put a stop to any of these displays in case we crush the legitimate work of the Holy Spirit as well. Rather, we should leave it to God to discern the true fruit and to burn what is not of everlasting worth on the Day of Judgment. George Whitefield, the famous revivalist, interpreted this passage in a similar way. When Wesley criticized him for allowing unruly manifestations, his answer was: ‘If you try to stamp out the wildfire and remove what is false, you will equally and simultaneously remove what is real.’

5.      Cape Revival Fruit

The lessons learned during the Cape revival helped prepare Andrew Murray for his future role in the influential Keswick movement. Andrew Murray attended the Keswick Convention for the first time in 1882. In 1895, he was asked to speak at both the Keswick and Northfield Conventions. Murray was warmly received at these conferences and was later responsible for bringing the Keswick movement to South Africa. The Keswick Convention was itself the indirect fruit of the wonderful season of awakening in England, America and South Africa.
The revival touched at least four different continents, bringing with it a renewed faith and vision for personal holiness and the Spirit-filled life. It was this liberating message that soon became synonymous with Andrew Murray’s personal ministry.
            The birth of the Keswick Convention united the emerging European holiness movement. Thereby it helped to channel the fire and energy of what became known as the “Third Great Awakening”.  However, the Keswick Convention did much more than merely unify and preserve the remaining fruit of this great revival. With a clear call to personal holiness through faith in Christ, the Keswick movement helped to prepare a new generation for the next move of God.

Hunting Grounds' for missionary Recruits                                                                                             Those attending the conventions were always strongly encouraged to embrace a lifestyle of holiness, unity and prayer. In the 1902 Keswick Convention, five thousand Christians agreed to form home prayer circles for a worldwide outpouring of the Holy Spirit. The fruit of these Keswick praying bands was no doubt realized through the Welsh Revival of 1904/5. Through the biblical teaching of men like Andrew Murray, F. B. Myer and many others, thousands of Christian workers and missionaries were empowered and purified to enter a new millennium of global harvest. Many missionary mobilizers regarded the Keswick Convention as one of the finest 'hunting grounds' for the best missionary recruits. Here again we find it to be true, that the influence of one generation’s Spirit-filled ministry often waters the seeds that would become the next generation’s harvest.

Women in spiritual Renewal at the Cape
A rare feature of the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century is that women spearheaded missionary work in South Africa for which men had no vision.
          Women had been playing a major role in spiritual renewal at the Cape, all too often behind the scenes.  A Cape-based missionary agency actually owes its existence to a woman. Mrs Martha Osborne was thoroughly impacted by the Holy Spirit after her conversion during a meeting of D.L. Moody. Her husband became seriously ill soon after his retirement, and eventually died. A newspaper report about the presence of ‘dens of the lowest description’ among British soldiers in Cape Town gripped her. This became Martha Osborne’s call to missions. She sailed in 1879 to devote herself to work among the Cape soldiers.
            In South Africa she initiated evangelistic missionary work in Cape Town, Natal and Zululand. She founded a Sailors’ Home, a Ladies Christian Workers Union, the Railway Mission and the South African YWCA (see below). 
            In 1890, she married George Howe who had been working alongside her with a similar vision. During the South African War the couple established no less than 27 Soldiers’ Homes.
          The Africa Evangelistic Band (AEB) came into being through the evangelistic activity of Emma and Helena Garratt, two sisters. The Pilgrims, as their workers were called, evangelized in same-sex pairs, discipling new believers as they criss-crossed the country, bringing life to many a spiritually dead church. The use of Dr Pellat as a missionary doctor (1897-1902) was the first use of a woman in her own right as a missionary to Muslims in Cape Town.

The Emancipation of Women prepared
The author of The Romance of the three Triangles is convinced that the work of the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) ‘had its inception in the mind of God’. The Ladies Christian Workers’ Union was formed in Cape Town at the suggestion of Mrs Martha Osborne. In August 1884, during a visit to the Mother City by Dr Andrew Murray for evangelistic services, this organisation was formally established under his chairmanship. At one of the Ladies’ gatherings the role of young women and the best way to help them was discussed. Mrs Osborne’s sister succeeded in gaining the interest of many Christian friends.
          The women continued to pray, asking God for further guidance. There was an urgency now to find a suitable venue to which they could invite young women. For weeks they prayed to this end.
          At this time the affluent Bam family of Cape Town had sent their two daughters to Germany for schooling. During their stay there both girls contracted Typhoid Fever, dying of it subsequently. In this time of grief their father heard indirectly of the desire of the Ladies Christian Workers’ Union to befriend young women in Cape Town. He wrote a letter in which he expressed his desire to devote the house, which was the birthplace and home of his deceased daughters, to the work that the Ladies Christian Workers’ Union had in view.
          At a meeting on 6 May 1886 it was decided to inaugurate the work of the YWCA. The building was dedicated for use by young women as a safe place right from its inception. It was also intended as a place of rest for Christian workers and missionaries coming to town,. A basis of faith became the framework within which membership would operate. The dependency upon God was epitomised by a week of prayer. When special needs arose, it was quite normal that the leaders would call for ‘quiet days’. ‘It has always been the great desire of the members that the organisation should never lose the spirit of waiting on God to know how and for what to pray’. On 5 June 1901 the committee of the former union resolved to discontinue using the name Christian Workers’ Union. It had by then done its job to instil dignity and self-confidence in many a young woman. The emancipation of Cape Christian women was prepared in this way.

Cape Women leading the Way
The Cape indirectly played a role in the global fight for female voting rights. The wife of Saul Solomon, the physically tiny 19th century parliamentarian giant, got involved in this movement in Great Britain.
          From 1895 Julia Frances Solly, who came from England in 1890, became active in the move to secure the vote for women. As a close friend of Olive Schreiner, the well-known pioneer of positive feminism,[12] she was one of the chief personalities in the National Council of Women in South Africa.

An underrated Missionary
Outreach to Muslims and Jews have been the Cinderella’s of church and missionary work down the centuries to this day. It is therefore not surprising that one finds special contributions in these areas of missional endeavour.
          Dr Arnold, an exceptional but completely underrated missionary, operated in Papendorp that was later renamed to Woodstock. He would definitely have made a deep dent on Cape Islam - in tandem with Dean Lightfoot in Bo-Kaap - if he had not died already in 1881, i.e. after being at the Cape for only 6 years.  Other reports show that Arnold impacted Muslims in his short stint significantly.  That he was in charge of Muslim work over the whole Peninsula militated against an even bigger impression amongst the adherents of that religion in Papendorp (Woodstock).
          It is rather strange that one finds only scant reference to the profound missiological-theological work of Dr Arnold prior to his coming here. Hardly anybody pointed to his monumental book on Islam, the third edition of which had been printed in 1874, just a year before he came to the Cape. It is all the more remarkable because only very few books on Islam had been written in English before his great work. He was a researcher of no mean quality, delving out less known facts about the life of Muhammad, the supreme Islamic prophet, e.g. that Muhammad had not been circumcised and not buried within 24 hours after his death.[13]
          That Arnold was an Islamic scholar of note is demonstrated by the fact that he could quote from the fake Gospel of Barnabas in Spanish - i.e. at a time when an English translation was not yet freely available. Arnold gave his knowledgeable view: ‘the interpolation of this spurious Gospel by a Muslim hand is too palpable to deserve a word of comment or argument’. 

Evangelism takes off in the Mother City
The Salvation Army had a hot welcome in the Mother City. A month after their arrival on 4 March 1883, Major and Mrs Francis Simmonds with Lieutenant Alice Teager, opened fire’ in Cape Town. Initially vilified by Cape society, young men would for example turn up in droves to attend their services, some of them intending to disrupt the services. The newspaper Lantern bemoaned that the new group was bringing the Gospel to the streets in unfamiliar ways, ‘degrading the dearest sensibilities of the Christian Faith … to the commonest and vulgarest of music-hall tunes, the women glib in blasphemy and mouthing in illiterate dialect the most daring orations to appropriate music-hall gesture and demeanour’: Their salvos were pretty effective because a mere two months later 300 new converts gathered in a hall in Claremont. This was revival stuff!
          The evangelistic outreaches of the Baptist Church, which started in 1876 with nine members, first peaked at the end of the 19th century. No less than the “Prince of Preachers”, Charles Spurgeon, was involved in training and sending out the first Baptist ministers to the Cape.
          Mr Frederick George Lowe came to Cape Town in 1896 as a concerned Anglican and a businessman who sold cheap clothing. He soon got involved with loving outreach to the poor and needy, especially at the time of the Bubonic Plague in 1901. Lowe started what he called the City Slum Mission in 1902, combining compassionate outreach with evangelism. When he moved to Well’s Square, that was known as a venue for drunkenness and prostitution, he had meetings that drew hundreds.
         After Lowe’s death the mission got its present name, the Cape Town City Mission. In later years churches and all sorts of institutions of charity were started all over the Peninsula. The combination of evangelism and compassionate outreach – which they took from their models, the Glasgow City Mission and the Salvation Army, became an integral part of their ministry. (This remained the case until the 1990s when the evangelistic sector became a part of Kingdom Ministries, led by Pastor Alfie Fabe, which started sending out missionaries to different countries of the world.)
                                6. Revival Seed in the early
20th Century

          Dr Andrew Murray put in practice what he had taught about ‘waiting on the Lord’ when he was invited to be a speaker at the World Missions Conference in New York, 1900 - billed as the biggest ever to be held. (At this time the effect of the Enlightenment and Rationalism had significantly diminished belief in unseen forces like the Holy Spirit in the West.) Andrew Murray had no inner peace about going to New York, not even after the organizers tried to use his famous friend Dwight Moody to entice him. Murray felt morally bound to stay with his people because of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). We may safely surmise that Murray was sensitive to the Holy Spirit, only wanting to take instructions from the Lord.

Prayer as a special Key
Murray’s subsequent absence at the conference ironically became the biggest cause of missions at the start of the 20th century.  After he received the papers and discussions at the conference, Murray wrote down what he thought was lacking at the event in a booklet: The Key to the Missionary Problem. This booklet would have an explosive influence on the churches in Europe, America and South Africa.  There Murray referred prominently to the 24-hour prayer watch of the Moravians.
Murray also states that missionary work is the primary task of the church, and that the pastor should have that as the main goal of his preaching. These sentiments were repeated in another booklet with the title Foreign Missions and the week of Prayer, January 5-12, 1902.  He furthermore suggested that ‘to join in united prayer for God’s Spirit to work in home churches a true interest in, and devotion to missions (is) our first and our most pressing need.’ A classic statement of Andrew Murray’s is found in his book The Kingdom of God in South Africa (1906): ‘Prayer is the life of missions. Continual, believing prayer is the secret of vitality and fruitfulness in missionary work. The God of missions is the God of prayer'.

The Key to the Missionary Problem
Precursors of 20th century spiritual warfare started from South Africa when Andrew Murray brought the issue into focus through his emphasis on prayer and the interest he aroused in the work of the Holy Spirit. Revivals in different parts of Africa were initiated from Cape Town after Murray’s founding of the South African General Mission in 1889. His booklet The Key to the Missionary Problem really set the scene for great things, also in Africa.
          Andrew Murray and Spencer Walton of the South African General Mission (SAGM)[14] organized conferences at Wellington, which became known as the South African version of Keswick.

Mainline Church ‘Evangelism’
The mainline churches operating at the Cape at the end of the 19th century hardly had a vision for evangelism. In fact, to preach conversion was regarded as sectarian. A description which typifies the mission work – e.g. of the Anglicans - is aptly described by the aim of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG): ‘The primary aim of the SPG was to save Anglicans from lapsing into paganism, but a subsidiary aim (my emphasis) was to convert non-Christians to Anglicanism’.
          Other Protestant churches appeared to show little interest in bringing people into a living relationship with God, apart from a few individuals from these groups. They were just happy to keep their flock together, usually quite contented to bring into their fold those from other denominations who were disgruntled for some reason or another. In these churches conversion became almost a swear word. To all intents and purposes bekering (conversion) was confined to a tradition. One gets converted at Pentecost! 
          A life of holiness was not preached, regarded as overdrawn. Backsliding became the order of the day. The term ‘born again’ became suspect in due course. The Keswick Convention at the Cape was an important corrective for decades with its emphasis on holiness. The effect was however limited because of its proximity to the life-style of racial segregation. (In the meetings at the Groote Kerk people of colour had to sit separately.)
          At events with international preachers in the Old Drill Hall in Darling Street, one could invariably reckon with some Muslims in the audience. Many from the ranks of Islam were attending Christian schools in Bo-Kaap and District Six.

The Pentecostal Revival coming to South Africa                                                                                         God used the Afro-American William Seymour at the famous Azusa Street Pentecostal revival to bless the world. Ripples of that revival found their way also to the Cape via John Lake. In April 1908, Lake and his family left for South Africa. Though they had no visible means of support, they were miraculously provided for every step of the way. And thus began a tremendous revival, with mighty healings, miracles and deliverances, which would profoundly impact the African continent for years to come, long after Lake was gone. The ‘Black’ church that was started by a missionary couple in Doornfontein, Johannesburg, was soon attended by ‘Whites’’ after one of the servants had been healed under the powerful ministry of John Lake.  Miracles followed and before long, ‘Black’ Africans found themselves standing around while their ‘White’ employers were blessed’. The Bree Street Tabernacle in Johannesburg grew out of that ministry. That became the pristine beginnings of the Apostolic Faith Mission Church, led from 1914 to 1943 by Petrus le Roux, the missionary protégé of Andrew Murray. The mainline churches gave free publicity to the work, by preaching against it.                                                                                                                                                    The faith healing ministry at the Bree Street Tabernacle of Johannesburg brought another Cape-born giant into the frame on the long run. After the father of David du Plessis, had been healed, the family moved out of the DRC. David was born at a place called Twenty Four Rivers near Cape Town in February 1905 among a community of Christian believers that grew out of the powerful ministry of a Norwegian evangelist.  The birth of David was the result of prayer as his father narrated: ‘Before he was born, his mother and I prayed every day, ‘Lord, give us a son for our first born, and we promise we will bring him up for your service’.                                                                                                                                                            After declining a serious offer in politics and a lucrative one in business, David du Plessis ultimately became the national secretary of the Apostolic Faith Mission Church for many years. Petrus Le Roux was his President until 1943. Almost single-handedly David Du Plessis put the denomination on the church map when he started the AFM Bible School with 16 students. After only a few years, he had trained 50 committed men. David du Plessis would later be called Mr Pentecost.
Into the Vatican and further
David Du Plessis’ ecumenical work was however not appreciated in his own denomination. Fellowship with independent Pentecostals was to him quite important. He was invited to become the secretary of the world conference in Toronto in 1958. There he was completely cold-shouldered, and all but pushed out of the Pentecostal movement. Du Plessis felt clearly led ‘to resign from every position that I held in any society and to follow Him wherever he may lead.’ Sovereignly God over-ruled. In 1959 he was lecturing in the theological institutions of a wide spectrum of denominations.  This resulted in him being invited to the World Council of Churches (WCC) conference itself. There he met Professor Bernard Leeming from Oxford, who was the personal representative of Pope John XX111. One thing led to another until Du Plessis wrote from New Delhi that he would make a stopover in Rome.
          There he spent many hours in prayer, ‘considering the difficulties that lay ahead for Protestants and Catholics in matters of trust and forgiveness.’ The Lord first had to deal with him through His Word. In fact, it came to him through the context of the Lord’s well known prayer. ‘...If you forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses’ (Matthew 6:15). He sensed: ‘I am certain the Lord spoke to me about the many burdens of unforgiveness and suspicion’ between Catholics and Protestants for so many centuries. “The souls of Christians will live when all learn to forgive.”
          In Rome Du Plessis met Dr Strandsky, the secretary of Cardinal Bea, who headed a new Roman Catholic secretariat for promoting church unity. Strandsky had a special charge to learn as much as he could about the Holy Spirit and the Pentecostals. Because David du Plessis was now a ‘mere zero’ in the Pentecostal movement, he was ideally placed to share at the Vatican. When Cardinal Bea asked him for his personal opinion, God used David du Plessis to minister to millions of Roman Catholics all around the globe. ‘Make the Bible available to every Catholic in the world ... If Catholics will read the Bible, the Holy Spirit will make that book come alive, and that will change their lives. And changed Catholics will be the renewal of the church.’  (Roman Catholics were forebidden to read and interpret the Bible for themselves.) The words of ‘Mr Pentecost’ – as David Du Plessis was nicknamed - turned out to be very prophetic. His contribution in 1964 introduced the charismatic renewal to the Roman Catholic Church. At the Vatican Council it was decided to make the Bible available to every Roman Catholic person in the world. David du Plessis was present at a session of the Vatican Council. God also used Du Plessis to bring about a thaw in the relationship between Protestants and Roman Catholics worldwide.

Empowering the Underdogs 
In America a separate church had been started in the 18th century among Afro-Americans as the American Methodist Episcopal Church (AMEC) because of discrimination. The AMEC played a significant role in the liberation struggle, by enabling South Africans of colour to study in the USA. Among the very prominent ones there was the social worker and teacher Charlotte Maxeke. Charlotte Maxeke studied at Wilberforce University in Ohio, where she graduated in 1905, the first ‘Black’ woman from South Africa to earn a bachelor’s degree. After her marriage overseas to Marshall, a South African, and their return to the country, the couple impacted many ‘Blacks’. (One of these persons influenced at the Cape was Rev. Zaccheus Mahabane, who would become an influential personality in the ANC for many decades. Charlotte Maxeke founded the women’s league of the ANC.)
            Cape-born Frances Gow returned from the USA with a doctorate, becoming a Bishop in the AMEC denomination, one of the first western-trained bishops on the continent. The AMEC - with its origins among the Afro-Americans of the USA - was a great propagator of the indigenisation of the church at the Cape. Under Dr Gow’s leadership – he only became their bishop in 1956 - the church expanded rapidly, at least numerically, with churches in different parts of the Peninsula.
Cooperation of disadvantaged Races                                                                                                          ‘Blacks’ were excluded from participation in the politics of South Africa already in the run-up to the formation of the Union in 1910. On the long run all this helped to bring the gigantic stature of Dr Abdullah Abdurahman to the fore. In another way, ‘Blacks’ played a role in Abdurahman’s meteoric rise, notably during the Bubonic Plague in Ndabeni in 1901. As president of the African People’s Organisation (APO), Dr Abdurahman left no stone unturned in the fight for political rights for all people. Thus he petitioned the government in 1923  ‘that such provision be made as may be necessary for the removal of the colour bar in South Africa, by granting to non-European subjects franchise rights in all the provinces of the Union of  South Africa, and the right to of being elected as members of the Legislature.
The Battle for equal Education
Another influential expatriate figure at the Cape was Henry Sylvester Williams, a ‘Black’ lawyer who hailed from Trinidad in the West Indies. He came to Cape Town in October 1903, with the intention to build Pan-Africanism and to see British status coming into being for all ‘Black’ people in the British Empire. As in so many other areas, District Six was countrywide also the cradle of the battle for equal education for all. Henry Sylvester Williams organized a meeting in District Six on 22 March 1904 to protest against the treatment of people of colour in the new colonies. The hall was filled to capacity and hundreds had to be turned away.
          Dr Abdullah Abdurahman, the leader of the APO, made the same point in a speech in District Six on 23 February 1905, protesting against the School Board Act. He was also the brain behind the first Teachers’ association, the Teachers’ League of South Africa (TLSA) in 1913. The bulk of the fighters against racial discrimination at the Cape over the next decades would come from the ranks of the teaching profession.

More Blessings from the Northern Hemisphere
A significant spiritual influence at the Cape was John Mott’s Student Christian Movement, along with the Edinburgh meeting of evangelicals in 1910 that became the forerunner to the World Council of Churches. All this looked set to spawn worldwide evangelization. John Mott, the leader of a global divine work among students, spoke at the Huguenot Hall in Orange Street on the outskirts of the City Centre at the beginning of the century. This ushered in the establishment of the Students’ Christian Association (SCA). 
          A related ministry in the 1920s was the Oxford Group, started by Frank Buchman, an American with a German Black Forest background. Edgar Brookes, great liberal politician of the Apartheid era, described the influence of the Oxford Group as follows: ‘Undoubtedly its first impact on South Africa was that of a genuine religious revival, and this made itself felt quite remarkably in the field of race relations.’

A new Fire for Evangelism    
Rather ambivalently, the depression of the early 1930s sparked a new fire for evangelism. The start of the Docks Mission is a case in point. When John Crowe listened to an open-air service of the Salvation Army in Adderley Street in 1932 as a young man, he was touched.  How happy his prayerful mother was when he shared that he had decided to follow Jesus! The ‘slightly Coloured’ family - as those with a fair complexion from that racial group used to be called - attended the Baptist Church in the Mother City’s Wale Street. Almost immediately the 18-year old Crowe wanted to share the Gospel with other people in the neighbourhood of Roggebaai. He soon struck a partnership with his namesake John Johnson, becoming involved in open-air services at different places. Later they were especially active on the Grand Parade[15], where various political groups and others had their meetings. Harold, John Johnson’s brother, joined them there at a later stage. When people started committing their lives to Jesus through their ministry, the young men asked for permission to conduct meetings in one of the Railway cottages that soon became too small. They then rented a wood and iron construction that was called the ‘Tin Shanty.’
Starting their outreach in the Dockyard, the Docks Mission operated from the ‘Tin Shanty’. From its earliest years prayer and fasting was a custom of the Docks Mission.

Docks Mission Prayer Meetings leading to Growth 
At the ‘Tin Shanty,’ many a Friday night was used for an all-night prayer meeting. No wonder that God gave the new denomination, the Docks Mission, phenomenal growth. On every third Saturday of the month a combined prayer meeting was held, first in the church of Belgravia Estate, and later it was rotated to the other branches.
            Many lives were changed through their ministry. Docks Mission members made a national impact through ministry to prisoners on Robben Island. Docks Mission's Pastor Walter Ackerman thus witnessed to and challenged Nelson Mandela. (After his release in 1990, Mandela often referred to the Christian teaching that he received over the years as an important contribution to forgiveness and refraining from revenge.)

Praise, Worship and Fasting
A Bible verse, which is rightly quoted quite often, is Zechariah 4:6, ‘Not by might nor by power, but by my spirit, says the Lord Almighty’. This is basic to revival, but it is unfortunate that the context is usually not considered when the verse is quoted. Other basic principles are contained in this prophesy (Zechariah 4), namely that of the power of the weak and the ‘few’ involved in the erection of the temple. ‘Shouts of thanksgiving’ declare that ‘all was done by grace alone’ (v.6-8).
Praise is used in the ‘OT’ a few times in the attacks on God’s enemies. Probably the most well-known of them is Joshua and the seven trumpets. The gathering marched around Jericho, culminating in the united shout after the seventh time on the seventh day. (We note the repetition of the number seven, the biblical number for completion and perfection). Sometimes fasting, prostrating worship and praise occur in close proximity in Scripture (e.g. Nehemiah 9:1+4; 2 Chronicles 20:3ff).
Fasting as a tool in spiritual warfare has lost its initial purpose to a great extent. It was either completely neglected, or it became a ‘work’ to earn God’s favour like fasting during Lent. Jesus himself fasted and prayed for forty days and nights before he started his ministry (Matthew 4:2). When His opponents pointed to the fact that His disciples were not fasting, the Master did not cancel the feasibility of it. He merely stated that the disciples would be doing it when he, ‘the bridegroom’, would have left them (Matthew 9:15). (At the return of Christ there will be the ‘Marriage Supper of the Lamb’ with his 'Bride' - the Church as the Body of Christ.) Jesus did however attack fasting as an outward show to impress others (Matthew 6:16; Luke 18:12). The Master was operating fully in line with ‘OT’ teaching, where we read for example that God rejects fasting when those who are fasting are living in luxury, evil pleasures and oppress (underpay?) their workers (Isaiah 58:3). But the Hebrew Scriptures teach just as clearly that fasting can be a sign of penitence (2 Chronicles 20:3; Ezra 8:21; Jonah 3:5; Daniel 6:18; Joel 2:15). It was also used as a weapon in fighting the enemy (Esther 4:16). All three of these prayer elements - praise, worship and fasting - were employed profitably in these early 20th century Cape ventures.

7. Curbs of Spiritual Renewal

          The potential of the indigenous Khoikhoi – to be blessed by godly colonizers - was not realised. Instead, mutual animosity and skirmishes became the order of the day. Jan van Riebeeck, the founder and commander, boasted how he intoxicated the Khoikhoi and subsequently robbed them of their cattle and their land.
          The Dutch colonizers – along with opportunistic Germans from the low social classes - speedily sunk into grave moral degradation. This was checked to a great extent by the pious French Huguenots who arrived from 1688.
          Denominational divisions, language and race issues would curb evangelistic progress from the very early years of the Cape Colony.

Repressive Denominationalism
Protestant missionaries were expediently abused to oppose Roman Catholicism in different parts of the world. An agreement had been reached after the 30 Years War, which ended in Europe in 1648: cuius regio, eius religio. This implied that colonial powers could enforce their national religion on the areas that they had colonised. Therefore no other churches except the Dutch Reformed denomination were allowed to operate at the Cape.
          One of the worst examples of denominational discrimination worldwide was practiced at the Cape in respect of Catholics. Three Catholic priests, the first of whom arrived in October 1805, were requested to leave the Cape at the British re-conquest of the colony the following year.
          Other religions were even worst off. Muslims were merely tolerated and Judaism was trampled upon. The Dutch Reformed Church saw itself as the new Israel that replaced the Jewish nation, which the Bible describes as the ‘apple of God’s eye.’

Discrimination among other Mainline Protestants
The French Huguenots, who arrived at the Cape after 1688, were spiritual relatives of the ruling church but even they were not allowed to use their language for worship. (In France the Huguenots had been persecuted by Catholics.)
          Although there were many Germans at the Cape by 1700, they were not permitted to have their own church. (The regiment stationed at the Cape after the 30 Years War in Europe contained 398 Germans out of a total of 420). It took the Lutherans almost 40 years of petitioning until they were finally allowed to bring their own minister to the Cape and to have their own worship in 1779.                                                       Georg Schmidt, the Moravian missionary, was the first cleric outside of the Reformed ranks to operate at the Cape. Theal (Vol. 3, 1964 [1907]:59) notes that Schmidt initially experienced ‘nothing but kindness’ from the government at the Cape. However, he was seriously handicapped after Ds G. Kulenkamp, an Amsterdam minister, issued a pastoral letter of warning against the views expressed by the Count Zinzendorf, the leader of the Moravian Church movement at the time. Kulenkamp’s letter branded the Moravians a mystical society. According to him, the Moravians were spreading dangerous opinions under the cover of pure simplicity. The free attitude of the Moravians towards the various confessions caused offence to those who were proud of what they considered as the pure doctrine of the Reformed Church.  Count Zinzendorf endeavoured to form a fellowship of all who accepted the salvation through Christ.
          A basic objection against the German missionary was that he had no relationship to the Dutch Reformed Church. Gerdener, a Dutch Reformed theologian, highlighted Schmidt’s reactions to these ‘whisperings’ that were intended to halt his work, a reaction that was so typical of that generation of Moravians: ‘More than ever Schmidt sought the guidance of the Lord of the harvest and declared that this guidance demanded that he should not only continue but renew his efforts with even greater vigour.
          At Baviaanskloof Georg Schmidt was expected to refrain from starting a new church through his mission work, although the colonial church officials believed ‘less in the possible conversion of the Khoi than in the conversion of the devil’, to quote Schmidt’s own words. He was merely tolerated as long as he worked far away from company settlements. Worldwide the Moravians were operating with a low profile in remote places.  It is quite telling of the religious intolerance that this church group was nevertheless treated as criminals for attempting to reach the ‘Blacks’.  It did not begin like that though. 
The Language and Race Issue
Maart, a slave from Mozambique, was blessed ‘with strong intellectual endowments’. He responded so well to the five years of Christian teaching under the missionary-minded pastor Ds M.C. Vos that the London Missionary Society (LMS) thought of equipping him to accompany other missionaries to ‘... introduce into his native country ...that gospel which brings healing and salvation in its wings’.  The missionary Henricus Maanenberg was forced however to suspend instruction to the slave Maart because of a ban on teaching ‘heathen’.
          It is sad that the language and race issue ultimately caused a division at St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church. A missionary association was begun in 1848 with two separate parts, the one ‘White’ and the other ‘mixed’. Ostensibly, the reason given in the report of 13 October 1848 was practical, because ‘the converts from the Heathen’ were not ‘sufficiently acquainted with English to derive edification from religious services in that language’.
          Soon it became clear that the differences were much deeper. A dispute arose between the Dutch speakers and the English part of the church. The former group consisted mainly of people of colour. Tensions grew when the Dutch-speaking members felt that they were not enjoying the same benefits as the ‘White’ English-speaking members.  Rev George Morgan was clear in his preaching: ‘wherever a Christian church is planted …it is the duty… to extend the blessings to all classes of men without distinction’.
          Because of the economic depression of the 1860s and 1870s many English-speaking members left Cape Town. Eventually, on 31 October 1878, the Mission which was started in 1838, closed down. Yet, missionary work as such did not stop at the church.  A new venture, St Andrew’s Sabbath Morning Fellowship, was started in 1876. They hired a hall in Bloem Street where Xhosas were reached. In due course this flowed into the Presbyterian outreach which started in 1893 in Ndabeni.

Divine Over-Ruling                                                                                                                                The clear support of Dr Johannes van der Kemp and Dr John Philip for the slaves and the indigenous Khoisan caused intense resentment towards all missionaries. The run-up to the emancipation of the slaves were among the main causes of the Great Trek into the interior.
Dr Johannes van der Kemp blazed a trail for a better understanding between the Dutch Reformed Church and the missionaries when he stuck to his calling to the indigenous, refusing to become the pastor of Graaff-Reinet. In a compromise, his colleague Aart Athonij van der Lingen, who had been refused permission by Dutch governor De Mist to work among the slaves at the Cape - became the Graaff-Reinet minister. Hereafter various missionaries sent out by the London and Rotterdam Missionary societies ended their days as pastors of Dutch Reformed congregations, blessing that church with an evangelical stamp of commitment to the Word of God. At the same time the gulf between the pastor of the ‘White’ church and the mission churches was somewhat lessened and the negative vibes of the colonists towards the missionaries from abroad decreased.                                    Another divine element to prepare the revival was ironically the Anglicization attempt by Lord Charles Somerset, the Cape governor at the time. In addition to the scorn heaped on locally spoken Dutch by English speakers, Afrikaners themselves were inclined to use derogatory terms to describe their vemacular.
            The seed that Ds Gottlieb van der Lingen, the son of a London Missionary Society (LMS) missionary pioneer, sowed in opposing the Anglization of Cape society had dire results. But God divinely over-ruled Van der Lingen's bigoted and nationalistic vision. Instead of safeguarding the culture of the elite, two of the recruited Dutch teachers, Arnoldus Pannevis and Cornelis P. Hoogenhout, became staunch fighters for the Bible in the vernacular of the poor, the kombuistaal of inferior Dutch. That would ultimately become the language Afrikaans.

Revival Deterrents
Racism came to the Cape already strongly in the 19th Century. The majority of the materialistic colonists sadly opposed divine moves through outright rejection of slaves, even in the first two churches of the time. Just as bad was what was going on at the farms. The workers who came to Genadendal had been told by some of the farmers that they were not equal to them (the farmers) and that it was therefore impossible for them to enter heaven. The negative attitude of the farmers however made the Khoi inquisitive. In the Genadendal Diaries of the missionaries one can read in the entry for 5 September 1794 about the Khoi: ‘...they have heard the farmers say many bad things about us... So they wanted to come and see and hear for themselves.’ Although clearly opposed by Dutch Reformed Church leaders as early as 1829, the prejudice and arrogance that some Europeans had imported, stifled the revivals at the Cape.
          Denominationalism is the other tool used by the arch enemy to oppose revival. A few mission agencies converged on the Cape after 1820, every one of them importing their own brand of Christianity. District Six (formerly Onderkaap) and Woodstock had many churches within a few decades.
          The increase of missionaries unfortunately also had a negative side effect. Competition and rivalry started popping up, e.g. in little Namaqualand. When the Rhenish also wanted to enter this region, the Wesleyans (Methodisr) who had been there since 1816 with Barnabas Shaw in Lelyfontein (the LMS had been in Little Namaqualand already since 1806), there was protest. The issue was amicably resolved when the Rhenish missionaries abandoned their attempt to settle there as well.

A Dent in Andrew Murray’s Legacy
It had been decided at the 1829 Cape Dutch Reformed Church synod that all church members would be admitted to communion ‘without considering colour or background’. Furthermore, race would not even be allowed as a subject for deliberation at synods. Instead, it had to be regarded as ‘a hard and fast rule, based on God’s Word’ that no person should be barred on racial grounds.
          Three decades later Andrew Murray and three other young dominees, namely P.K. Albertyn (Zwartberg, Caledon), J.H. Neethling (Prins Albert) and N.J. Hofmeyr, wanted the church to move forward in reaching the lost. It seemed that Andrew Murray, the great man of God, did not sufficiently discern the danger of racial prejudice. That the nationals of colour could also be used as missionaries was apparently not present in the thinking anymore of the bulk of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa at that time. At the Church synod of 1857 the three young ministers were given the challenging task as a commission to examine the matter and report back to the synod. With no money and personnel available for missions, some synod members tried to silence the three young colleagues because of these restraints.
          However, the report of the threesome ‘took the breath away of some of the older members’. The three were thoroughly vindicated when - because of the revival of Worcester and surroundings three years later - no less than 50 young men volunteered for ministry.
          Sadly however, the 1857 synod tragically agreed to accept racial separation because of the ‘weakness of some’. This motion was tabled by no less than Andrew Murray himself.  It implied a complete about-turn of the 1829 decision not to divide the denomination along racial lines. The participants had no idea to what a disaster their decision would lead in the long run, even though separation was allowed voluntarily. An improper message was conveyed, and it seems as if there was not a single person of colour among the 145 missionaries that left the Mission Institute in Wellington over the years. The decision paved the way for the ‘Coloured’ sector of the denomination, the Sendingkerk, to be sent on its separate way in 1881. (Ambivalently, the (Coloured) St Stephen’s congregation of Bo-Kaap was accepted as a member at this same synod.)
          Furthermore, at least one of Andrew Murray’s disciples, Petrus le Roux, was influenced to become a missionary to the Zulu’s. He was ordained in 1893 as an Eerwaarde,[16] i.e. as a Dutch Reformed missionary, at Wakkerstrooom in the Eastern Transvaal. Within seven years Le Roux had 2000 members, attributing his success to ‘good, earnest, native preachers’.

Denominational Rivalry
In some cases racism and denominationalism combined to get new churches started. Internal bickering by religious leaders and denominational rivalry all but cancelled the gains of the revivals of 1839 and 1860-61. Next to this phenomenon there were also other racially inspired congregations which were springing up. Thus the Dutch Reformed Church had a ‘White’ congregation in Aberdeen Street in Woodstock, with a ‘Coloured’ fellowship just down the road a stone’s throw away.  The Methodist and Congregational Church both had a similar situation with different congregations in due course for the respective race groups merely marginally apart geographically.
            This pattern of bickering has been plaguing the Mother City ever since, grieving the Holy Spirit and opposing a spiritual breakthrough. Luckily there was also another side of the coin, which however still has to take off: low-key evangelism, ecumenical co-operation and mutual support.
          There was also an outreach established in Hanover Street, a heritage of the pioneering work of Dr Andrew Murray. At the subsidiary of the Groote Kerk in a ‘gemengde gemeente’ (a racially mixed church) Dr Andries Dreyer weathered the storm of ‘onrust en kwaad gevoel’[17] during a move for church unity in 1911. The congregation had a separate Sunday School for about forty neglected street boys, amongst whom there were also Indians and ‘Malays’ (Cape Muslims).
          Quite significant at this time was the outreach of the Dutch Reformed Church in District Six by Ds G.B.A. Gerdener who worked there from 1911 to 1917. Gerdener had the fore-sight to stimulate the buying of a building,‘Uitkoms’ in Virginia Street, District Six, for the discipling of converts from Islam. The effect was minimal when the initial purpose was diluted, used for the accommodation of people other than converts from Islam. This was different at the beginning of the new millennium when various believers from Islam were taught and groomed at the Moriah Discipling House, the product of generous donations of a few overseas individuals and networking by three city churches in the Dorcas Trust.

Andrew Murray’s Heritage jeopardized
Also in another regard Murray’s ministry was tragically curtailed. His legacy of interdenominational outreach was seriously undermined. (In 1870 there had even been a discussion about unification of the Dutch Reformed Church and the Anglican Church.) In the Cape General Mission, which was started in 1889 with Andrew Murray as President, there were people from different denominational backgrounds from the outset. Andrew Murray was closely involved with this mission until the end of his life. From the outset the Mission agency was a dual enterprise, intending to reach both the ‘White’ and ‘Black’ sections of the population. In the main towns of the country they would labour among the neglected ‘Whites’. The Mission agency was blessed with spectacular growth. After only five years the original six workers had increased to sixty-eight.
          Petrus le Roux of Wakkerstroom fame had no scruples to mention that the ‘good, earnest, native preachers’ came from the Methodist and Anglican churches. Initially deeply influenced by Andrew Murray on divine healing and holiness theology, Petrus Le Roux was impacted by American Zionists from Illinois. Their three-fold immersion in the Snake River of Wakkerstroom however introduced bickering over the number of immersions in believers’ baptism.
          In the attitude towards people of colour there was a lot of goodwill among ‘Whites’ at the turn of the 20th century. A problem was that even radical thinkers among them hardly ever consulted people of colour. The ‘natives’ were regarded as inferior, their culture despised. Paternalism was rife.

Paternalism breeds Secession
This gave rise to the secessionist ‘Ethiopian Movement’. The ‘Ethiopians’ have been typified by the sentence: ‘We have come to pray for the deliverance of Blacks’, meaning liberation, set free from oppression. The ideological link went back to the Ethiopian eunuch of Acts 8 and the church, which developed in that country without mediation of Western Churches. The term ‘Ethiopian’ was derived from the concept that the first indigenous church on African soil started in Ethiopia.
          The ‘Ethiopian’ movement started in different parts of South Africa as breakaway congregations from the Methodist Church. Disillusioned by the imperfections of colonial society, they withdrew from ‘White’-dominated structures to form exclusively African organisations. Their aim was to throw off the shackles of ‘White’ domination and reassert their former independence, while retaining at the same time what they considered to be the best elements of European civilisation.
          By 1902, Ethiopianism was used for the entire indigenous church movement. For many a ‘Black’ churchmen, Ethiopia was the model land where ‘Blacks’ were ruling their own country. The spiritual impact of Ethiopianism was minimal because various compromises with pagan worship like polygamy, ancestor veneration and animism were retained.
          It was only natural that the ‘Ethiopian’ Methodists of South Africa linked up with them. Bishop Levi Coppin was sent here as the first ‘Black’ bishop. The AMEC headquarters were in District Six. 

A missionary Drive from Cape to Cairo
The missionary drive of Ethiopianism was significant. James Dwane, who was earmarked to be ordained as the first South African bishop of the merged AMEC, reflected on the broad aims of the movement: ‘Africa must not be evangelised by Europeans, not even by American ‘Blacks’, but by real Africans’. The desire grew to bring the Gospel to the rest of the continent, even to the Sudan and Egypt.
          Probably the first indigenous church planting move at the Cape started in District Six.  A strong element of ‘Coloured’ Nationalism was present when Rev. Joseph J. Forbes started his ‘Volkskerk van Afrika’ on 14 May 1922. This visionary had the courage of his conviction to start a denomination for the upliftment of the poor from the Cape to Cairo. That is the reason why he gave his church a continental name. The denomination made inroads in geographical areas where the first churches became slack. They even started a fellowship in the Moravian mission station Genadendal.
          A negative facet of Ethiopianism was the tendency to polarise, by bad mouthing everybody who did not join them. Lovedale-trained Elijah Makiwane concluded: ‘Those who refuse to join this movement are now called white men or Britons.

                                       8. Injustice and Oppression as Renewal Ignition

          The spurning and suppression of ‘Black’ women with regard to leadership did not harden them. Instead of becoming bitter and resentful, ‘Black’ women especially appeared to have accepted male leadership gracefully. Until the late 1940s these women organised activity among themselves independently. They would often allow the men to formally open meetings, in which they participated as speakers.  

ANC Leaders teach the Unity in Christ
Generations of political leaders in South Africa, particularly within the ANC, drew on Christian values for the building of a broader political unity. Coming from the African background of a broad humanity, ubuntu, there was, they believed, an ethical imperative to move beyond narrow identities of family, clan and race. – The thinking of White and ‘Coloured’ churches was bedevilled by the neat separation of politics and religion. Long before White and ‘Coloured’ churches embraced the concept, Blacks already saw the importance of the unity in Christ. One of the pioneers at the Cape was Rev. Zaccheus Richard Mahabane, a Methodist minister, who was posted to Cape Town in 1916. He joined the Cape African Congress in 1917 after hearing political speeches by Charlotte Maxeke and her husband.
          In 1919 Rev. Zaccheus Richard Mahabane became president of the Cape African Congress.  In 1924 he was elected president-general of the national ANC and again from 1937 to 1940. He maintained in 1925 that ‘the universal acknowledgement of Christ as common Lord and King break down the social, spiritual and intellectual barriers between the races’ (Cited in Elphick and Davenport, 1997:384). He propagated moderate conciliatory views of compromise, for instance he found a separate voters’ roll for Blacks acceptable if Whites found the prospect of a common roll too menacing.
            Not bearing the brunt of the hurts caused by apartheid, the White-led denominations were out of touch with the spiritual dynamics of the resistance against the heretical ideology which became government policy from 1948. Helen Joseph, a Jewish anti-apartheid campaigner bemoaned in respect of the Defiance Campaign of the 1950s: ‘The Church turned its back on the ANC, [but] the ANC never turned its back on the Church’ (Cited in Elphick and Davenport, 1997:386). In the middle of April 1953, Chief Albert Luthuli, the President-General of the ANC, proclaimed that the Defiance Campaign would be called off so that the resistance groups could reorganize taking into consideration the new political climate in South Africa. Albert Luthuli was nevertheless tried for treason, he was assaulted and deposed of his chieftaincy of his Zulu clan. The Defiance Campaigns, including bus boycotts in South Africa, served as an inspiration to Civil Rights Activists in the United States.
          The deep religiosity and prayerfulness of that campaign was described by Tom Lodge as a ‘mood of religious fervour [that] infused the resistance.’ He went on to note: ‘When the [Defiance] Campaign opened it was accompanied by days of prayer, and volunteers pledged themselves at prayer meetings to a code of love, discipline and cleanliness… and even at the tense climax of the Campaign in Port Elizabeth people were enjoined on the first day of the strike “to conduct a prayer and a fast in which each member of the family will have to be at home;” thereafter they attended nightly church services’ (Cited in Elphick and Davenport, 1997:386).

Paternalism hinders the Cause of the Gospel
Missionaries whose lives had been transformed through personal faith and conversion, often expected that this would also happen in society at large automatically - if the Gospel would only be effectively preached. Satan hit back, when an artificial and unbiblical differentiation between Christian action and evangelistic outreach caused an ever-widening rift in the Church.
          South African exponents of the ‘Social Gospel’ embraced education, social work and politics not as replacements of evangelism, but they were sometimes accused in this way by right-wing evangelicals. For Blacks, the discussion was academic in part, because as Professor D.D.T. Jabavu, a Black Christian leader, claimed, ‘the secular-sacred dichotomy was foreign to their African cosmology’ (Elphick, 1997:368).
          The disunity between churches for much of the 20th century actually centred around paternalism. The White-dominated English-speaking churches thought that the other races only needed equality of opportunity, which the Whites owed to the others. Afrikaners generally thought themselves to be called to be the guardians of the ‘non-White’ races. White supremacy was thus taken for granted by both groups. In the former case – also among missionaries - full equality and total integration were dragged and postponed to a distant future. On the other hand, nobody put the thinking of Afrikaner Christians more clearly than Hendrik Verwoerd, the architecture of apartheid. It was his conviction that the Black man had to be kept ‘in his place’, i.e. in subjection and servitude.
          Both groups were unaware that they were hurting themselves by denying dignity to others and thus seriously hindering the cause of the Gospel. Somewhere the teaching that unity is a prerequisite for effective prayer did not penetrate into the churches. That does not mean though that the message was not vocalised. Donald Fraser, a former Scottish missionary preached in twenty-six South African towns and cities in 1925 during the United Missionary Campaign. He charged Whites to abandon their fears of a so- called ‘black menace’, claiming wisely that there is ‘no menace when people are determined to do justice to one another’ (Cited in Elphick et al, 1997:368).
          Professor Hoernlé, by no means an evangelical, accurately described a liberal failing that was too often overlooked: ‘The greatest moral danger in the heart of the liberal spirit’ is that it is so apt to become paternalistic and condescending (Cited in Lewsen, 1988:25). It is strange that Afrikaner and radical intellectuals could see in him ‘the precursor of apartheid’. Edgar Brookes, the real precursor of apartheid who however recanted, could build on that foundation declaring in 1945: ‘We have no hope of preserving white racial dominance. It is not a question of whether it will fall, but of when’ (Cited in Lewsen, 1988:27).

Early 20th Century Black Church Leaders in costly Reconciliation
Over the years the church in South Africa has been a major catalyst for peace and reconciliation. Strong personalities like Reverend John Dube and Professor D.D.T. Jabavu had been playing a moderating and conciliatory role in the early days of the ANC. Successive White governments failed to appreciate the gold of human resources, by not listening to Black church leaders.
          Substantial resistance to the oppressive race policies came as a rule from the ranks of these church leaders until the 1950s. One of the most prominent of them was South Africa’s first Nobel Prize laureate, Albert Lutuli. After he had been dismissed as chief in November 1952, he responded with his famous address which had at its beginning the momentous words ‘thirty years of my life have been spent knocking in vain, patiently, moderately and modestly at a closed and barred door…’He ended with the powerful sentence: ‘The Road to Freedom is via the CROSS’ (The full address in printed as an appendix in Luthuli, 235-238).  Long before Black Theology was in vogue, Lutuli expressed his conviction that apartheid degrades all who are party to it. He was optimistic despite all evidence to the contrary that Whites would sooner or later be compelled to change heart and accept a shared society. Lutuli was elected ANC president-general by a large majority the next month, followed by his ‘cross’: Bans imposed in early 1953 were renewed in the following years, completely silencing them in 1959. Lutuli was not around any more to experience the freedom which Nelson Mandela could walk into, but he paved the way.
          On the other hand, many Christians naively overlooked the innate convenience in man to hold on to privilege. Some needed Black Theology in the 1970s and 1980s, for example the Kairos Document of 1985, to shake and liberate some of them out of their cosy zones.

Spiritual Vitality of praying Women
The practices and hurts inflicted by the Apartheid society was often the reason for determined resistance in the 1950s. The female Xhosas at the Cape reshaped their meetings to provide more practical instruction and opportunities for community activism. The manyanos (the Xhosa word for prayer unions) became instruments of ‘Black’ empowerment virtually second to none. Women leaders would not only pray and preach, but here their dignity and political awareness were also developed.
          Whereas ‘White’ and some ‘Coloured’ church women’s groups concentrated on fund raising, ‘Black’ female groups called themselves collectively Prayer and Service Union. The social and mutual support offered by prayer groups helped to compensate for the isolation and poor social structures which Western missionaries held up as models. Testimonies, preaching and spontaneous prayer became the lifeblood of ‘Black’ Christian groups. In the manyanos they could develop their potential as orators without first having to be literate.

A Hub of Resistance of the Oppressed
Much of the opposition to racial segregation in South Africa started in District Six. A popular newspaper of resistance, The Torch, had its offices in Central Hanover Street. The decade after 1935 has been described ‘a renaissance in the history of struggle by the oppressed in South Africa after the “dark years” of the early 1930s’. A thrust started with opposition to the three ‘Native Bills’ which spontaneously united people other than ‘White’. The Bills intended to remove ‘Blacks’ from the common voters’ roll in the Cape, entrenching segregation. Pixley Seme and John Tengo Jabavu, the ANC leaders, initiated the All African Convention (AAC), to challenge the discriminatory laws.
            District Six became the national hub of resistance in the struggle against racist oppression. The National Liberation League (NLL) was started there in 1935 with Cissy Gool, the daughter of Dr Abdurahman, President of the African People’s Organisation (APO), a ready-made leader. The NLL became one of the main forces in the All African Convention, which met from 15-18 December 1935 with more than 400 delegates.              
            A major vehicle of protest was the Non-European Unity Movement (NEUM), which was founded in 1943. It had the Teachers’ League of South Africa (TLSA) as one of the most influential affiliates. Teachers had taken the lead countrywide in the resistance to the oppressive government, due to the influence of Genadendal, along with the mission and church schools which fanned out from District Six.
            In the 1940s District Six was the cradle of ‘a national solution for all of South Africa and the structures and ideas upon which a truly national liberation movement came to be based.’ The prime example was how the Freedom Charter of the ANC in 1955 was ‘nothing but an imitation in many respects of our Ten Point Plan’, i.e. that of the Unity Movement.  If one considers the similarity between the Freedom Charter and the People’s Charter of June 1948, great similarity can indeed be discerned.
            The Church seems to have been silent by and large at this time. Some new life was radiated when the World Council of Churches was started in Amsterdam in 1948, but the effect petered out slowly into the 1950s.

Ministry amongst Youth and Children                                                                                                                           During and after World War II concern was raised for young people whose families had been broken up by fathers serving overseas on military assignments. The absence of a positive father figure (a male role model) in the home led to other social problems. The typical church structures were not catering for these young people. This compelled some Christian leaders to develop programmes specifically geared to reach out to these young people. The new initiative brought dynamic young evangelists into the frame, who started using revolutionary methods, conducting lively mass rallies in more than a dozen US cities under the name Youth for Christ (YfC).
          These initiatives became a movement and the pioneers started to travel to other countries. Youth for Christ (YfC) became an international Christian organization with its core mission and vision that of communicating the life-changing message of Jesus Christ to young people. 
          Jimmy Ferguson pioneered YFC’s ministry at the Cape where the organization started nationally in 1946. YFC South Africa in its early years was born out of a middle class ministry to ‘White’ high school learners, also providing a valuable service to predominantly suburban churches through training, rallies and camping.
          The slogan Youth for Christ would find emulation in different ways like Cops for Christ, Jews for Jesus and Athletes for Christ.                 

Ambivalent Responses to Racism    
Racism became legally entrenched as Apartheid in 1948. The Anglican Bishop Trevor Huddleston and others were making some inroads through their stand against the Apartheid policy and legislation that became official in South Africa after 1948. The most effective initial opposition came – quite surprisingly - from within the ranks of the Dutch Reformed denomination. Eerwaarde [18](Reverend) I.D. Morkel, influenced a dynamic mover, a young clergyman, Eerw. David Botha of the Wynberg Sendingkerk. In due course academics from the theological sphere came on board, notably the Professors B.B.Keet, Prof. Ben Marais and Albert S. Geyser. The latter paid the price for being one of the first Afrikaner Nationalists to speak out against the Broederbond and Apartheid on theological grounds. He was ostracized from the Afrikaner community.
The brutal clampdown of Apartheid enforcers harvested ambivalent responses. Chief Albert Luthuli, the great ANC leader, bequeathed an adage when he was dismissed as chief by the South African government in November 1952: 'It is inevitable that in working for freedom some individuals and some families must take the lead and suffer - the road to freedom is via the Cross'. In the 1960s and 1970s the Apartheid rulers silenced the political opposition via bannings and other methods.
          In other parts of the continent Colonialism and Imperialism had expressions which were clearly unjust. Oppressive practices became the hall-mark of these ideologies. This made Communism attractive to many ‘Blacks’. The atheist Communist ideology would never have thrived among the masses on the African continent if it were not for the unfair benefits to the fairer races and the countries from where they originated. One country after the other came under Communist influence in the early 1970s. (Islam was still a sleeping giant at this time. This would change due to events from Cape Town that had started in the 1960s, notably the Apartheid-related Group Areas legislation and a spiritual encounter on 13 August 1861 at the Green Point Track, which made Ahmed Deedat an international Muslim celebrity.)

Women, Jews and Muslims in the fight for Justice
Six ‘White’ English-speaking women, gathering for a tea party in a Johannesburg suburb on 19 May 1955, decided to ‘do something’ about the proposed legislation authorizing the government to enlarge the Senate. The moral indignation was the result of another effort to get the ‘Coloureds’ removed from the Common Voters’ Roll. The Women’s Defence of the Constitution League was started, an organization which became known as the Black Sash. Over a period of twenty years this group – easily discernible through the symbols of mourning over the rape of the constitution[19] - developed a sustained campaign of public education, examining the legality and morality of the laws. Significant was that the move of The Women’s Defence of the Constitution League not only spawned a male counterpart, The Covenanters, but they organized a national prayer day for Wednesday, 10 August 1955.

An emerging Church Unity growing…
In South Africa the Boer-Brit rift, a traditional animosity, was still rife in the 1940s among ‘Whites’ as a legacy from the Anglo-Boer War at the end the 19th century. This escalated when the Dutch Reformed Church withdrew from the Christian Council of Churches. The unity in the latter body, which was started in 1936 with Dutch Reformed ministers in leading roles, had however been quite frail.
The sense of unity which had been experienced at the inauguration of the World Council of Churches (WCC) in Amsterdam (1948) reverberated in many a country. Professor Gerdener wrote in 1959: ‘With thankfulness we observe signs to come together and work together, also in our own Dutch Reformed Church’.
          Albert Luthuli, the President of the ANC, was asked to address a predominantly Afrikaner – all ‘White’ study group in Pretoria in the early months of that year: ‘In my audience, on this occasion, there was an unexpected mixture of Afrikaner theologians and professors and foreign diplomats, and to my surprise some of the Afrikaners had come from as far afield as Potchefstroom, about two hundred miles away’. Soon hereafter, Luthuli was escorted from the Cape Town railway station to ‘an open square packed with people’, pre-figuring the event on the Grand Parade with Nelson Mandela after his release many years later.  

… and high-jacked      
The enemy of souls succeeded in high-jacking the emerging unity of believers in South Africa. After Luthuli’s return to his home town Groutville, he was served with a muzzling banning order, silenced and confined to the village for five years. The Sharpeville massacre of 21 March 1960 could have been God’s corrective to get the Church in South Africa at large back on track. The World Council of Churches (WCC) met their eight member churches in South Africa – ten delegates from every denomination - at Cottesloe, a suburb of Johannesburg, from 7 December 1960 to discuss the crisis in the country in the wake of the Sharpeville killings and the arrest of ‘Black’ leaders.
          With demonic scheming Dr H.F. Verwoerd, the Prime Minister, succeeded to make every move suspect which could foster Church unity. The ‘English-speaking churches’ and others sympathetic to the unity of believers across the race divide, were bad-mouthed. The storm caused by these moves caused the old Boer-Brit resentment to flame up: once again divide and rule became the name of the game.                           

The Road of Loneliness of individual Church Leaders       
Dr Beyers Naudé and a few other Church leaders who had been ostracized, valiantly walked the road of loneliness of which Albert Luthuli had spoken. He started the Christian Institute. Bible Studies with participants from different races were perhaps merely a drop in the ocean. Nevertheless, along with Ds. Beyers Naudé and his Christian Institute, Rev. Michael Cassidy, the founder and long-time leader of African Enterprise performed significant stalwart work to unite believers across racial barriers. The South African Council of Churches (SACC) was founded in May 1968 during one of the darkest periods of South Africa’s history. At the time, the National Party government was severely restricting the rights, associations and movements of the majority of South Africans across the board.
          Until the establishment of the SACC, South Africa’s churches had generally made little effort to stand together against the injustices of the Apartheid regime. The Message to the People of SACC at the inauguration in May 1968 was a new departure, stating that Apartheid was not merely bad in practice, but that it was also wrong in principle. It taught that Apartheid was not merely heretical, but that it was a false gospel. The Message was a turning point in Christian responses to Apartheid.

From Loneliness to Fellowship
When Ds. Davie Pypers commenced work in 1956 as a minister of the St Stephen’s congregation of the Dutch Reformed Church in Bree Street, he discerned the need for increased prayer for the Muslims of the area. Soon he initiated praying for Bo-Kaap and the Muslims living there. Together with two other pastoral colleagues, he interceded every Monday for the area that became even more pronouncedly Islamic in the wake of the envisaged implementation of Group Areas legislation.
          Ds. Pypers appears to have been one of the very few ministers at the Cape of his era who had any notion of spiritual warfare. It was by far not common practice yet.  And satan was definitely not going to release his gains so easily.

Power Encounters at the Cape
A spiritual power encounter on the old Green Point Track on 13 August 1961 initially seemed to have given Islam a fatal blow. Ahmed Deedat was a young imam at the receiving end of that encounter when a ‘White’ lady was supernaturally healed with Ds Davie Pypers, the young Dutch Reformed clergyman of the Gestig Sendingkerk[20] congregation as a divine instrument.    
          A covert power encounter ensued in 1962 when Theo Kotze became the pastor of the Sea Point and Malmesbury Methodist congregations. With his wife Helen and their children the Kotze family formed a formidable team, becoming soon the talk of the town. Theo Kotze was one of the first Christian Institute (CI) members at the Cape, forming an ecumenical Bible Study group and using material of CI that was led nationally by Dr Beyers Naudé,.
          In the second year of their ministry in Sea Point, Theo Kotze masterminded a prayer vigil and publicity for the multi-racial Alan Walker Mission at the Goodwood Showgrounds in September 1963. Special trains were organised to bring people from as far away as Simon’s Town and two massive crosses were erected on Signal Hill and Tygerberg. An all-night prayer vigil preceded the opening day. Alan Walker, a godly and fearless Australian evangelist, led campaigns in different countries. Unlike most contemporary evangelists he emphasised the social implications of the Gospel. During the preparation for the mission an ex-cabinet minister – angered by Alan Walker’s statements on non-racialism, unleashed a political controversy. Through his involvement with the evangelistic campaign, Theo Kotze was linked to Alan Walker, of whom the government disapproved emphatically.
          A demonstration of the fine balance of biblical compassion and social involvement became evident in his ‘Straight Talking’ columns of the Sea Point Vision church magazine that he started in March 1964.   Nelson Mandela and his colleagues had been on Robben Island for almost two years when the Cape Methodist Synod appointed Theo Kotze as Robben Island chaplain. Among his Methodist congregants there were big name political detainees like Nelson Mandela, Robert Sobukwe and Stanley Mogoba.

A Capetonian Prophet in the Making                                                                                                            On discovery of the depth of God’s grace and forgiveness, Theo Kotze committed himself also to local problems. Very daringly he addressed not only the burning issues of his ‘White’ congregants, but also the social ramifications of apartheid legislation that made it for example illegal for Black workers to be accommodated in servants’ quarters. His involvement with the Christian Institute (CI) played a major role in his spiritual development in this regard. When Kotze became Regional Director of the CI in 1969, the organisation had already become quite unpopular among ‘Whites’ because of the clear stand on the side of justice and against Apartheid.                                                                                                           The theme of the CI was (racial) reconciliation. All initiatives were preceded by discussions based on Bible Study and prayer. Beyers Naudé, the national leader, set the prophetic tone in the pursuit of truth and reconciliation, a message which Theo Kotze supported all the way.

Cape Inspiration for Operation World           
The family of Hans von Staden, the founder and Director of the Dorothea Mission, moved to Stellenbosch in 1920 where he developed a close friendship with Andrew Murray, the grandson of the well-known theologian with the same name. The writings of Dr Andrew Murray, especially The Key to the Missionary Problem, would have a profound influence on Von Staden.                  .                                                                                               In 1942 he experienced God’s call to his life-work, the founding of the Dorothea Mission: ‘I discerned His commission: we were to dedicate our lives to the evangelization of the people in the dark city townships of South Africa’. Van Staden played an inspirational role in the seminal book Operation World of Patrick Johnstone. At the end of the booklet The Key to the missionary Problem, Andrew Murray advocated the observing of Weeks of Prayer for the World. Hans von Staden inspired the launching of a whole series of Weeks of Prayer for the World in both Southern Africa and Europe.’ It was the Weeks of Prayer that made the provision of prayer information so important. This led to Von Staden’s challenge to Patrick Johnstone, to write a booklet with information to assist in these Weeks of Prayer. Hans von Staden also proposed the name “Operation World” in 1964.

Results of 'Group Areas' Legislation                                                                                                              A report presented in 1940 to the Cape Town City Council, envisaged ‘Slum Clearance Projects’, viz.  (a) District Six (b) The Malay Quarter (c) The Docks Area. With regard to the latter area, also called Roggebaai, the eviction of ‘Coloured’ inhabitants caused no significant upheaval. As a result of this however, the Baptist Church in Jarvis Street in due course became the home of the Cape Town Photographic Society.                                                                 After the passing of legislation by Parliament in 1950 to divide residential areas along racial lines, many ‘Coloured’ communities living around the Cape Town CBD were destroyed. In 1961 large areas of the city were declared ‘White’ residential zones. This resulted in many ‘Coloureds’ moving into District Six, where overcrowding worsened. Many people who did not know anything about Islam, now came to know Muslims, who spread the confusing message that ‘we have the same God’.                                                                                On May 7, 1961 Muslims gathered in the City Hall of Cape Town to launch the Call of Islam. This umbrella body of different Muslim organisations – founded by Imam Abdullah Haron – had the aim of opposing the Group Areas Act. In 1965 the Minister of Community Development and 'Coloured' Affairs, P.W. Botha – who would later become Prime Minister – called District Six a ‘blighted area’. Talk of slum clearance started doing the rounds, setting the scene for events to follow. On 11 February 1966 District Six was declared a ‘White’ residential area. In the insecurity that followed, landlords allowed buildings to go unrepaired, causing the District to become even more of a derelict residential area.
          The opposition to the Group Areas District Six declaration reverberated until well into the 1980s, which was one of the reasons that caused the government to slow down on the demolition of Bo-Kaap, which had been deceptively called the ‘Malay Quarter’. The ‘Malay quarter’ of Bo-Kaap was expanded, churches there were closed down and Christians were tempted to become Muslims if they wanted to continue living there. Some of the believers, who worshipped at the churches of St Stephen’s and the Anglican St Paul’s, had started leaving the residential area because of this legislation. By 1980, Bo-Kaap had become a Muslim stronghold with very little Christian influence left.

Islamic Shrines into the Limelight
Reverend Bernard Wrankmore had been a chaplain to seamen when he was especially challenged to pray for the beloved country.  Wrankmore saw the dossier of Imam Abdullah Haron, who had died while in police custody on 27 September 1969. The government of the day evidently wanted to muzzle the Imam Haron case. It highlighted for Rev. Wrankmore the fact that South Africa was now misled by a similar delusion as the Germans under Hitler. He decided to retreat for prayer and fasting to St George’s Cathedral for the situation in the country. However, Wrankmore was refused permission to do so by both the Archbishop and the Dean of the cathedral.
          In the Church at large there was ignorance about the effects of ancestral worship on people and of praying at shrines. Being a lover of mountaineering, Rev Wrankmore retreated for prayer to the Kramat near to Lion’s Head. He was in deep meditation when a group of Muslims entered. They promptly invited Wrankmore to attend the Muir Street mosque in District Six. When the Muslims there heard that permission had been refused for him to pray in the St George’s Cathedral, one thing led to another. Eventually Wrankmore was allowed to use the Islamic shrine at Lion’s Head.
          Rev Wrankmore came into the frontline of opposition to Prime Minister Vorster, when he requested an inquiry into the death of Imam Haron. He added weight to his protest through a drawn-out fast. A friend who had visited him at the shrine near to Lion’s Head, put the newspaper reporters on his track.

Student Movements
On the heels of Youth for Christ, an interdenominational Christian para-church organization for college and university students, was founded in 1951 at the University of California in Los Angeles by Bill Bright and his wife Vonette. Campus Crusade for Christ would blaze a trail of revival at tertiary institutions around the world.
          The Christen-Studentevereniging (CSV), the Afrikaner sector of the SCA, produced many prominent leaders in church and society. In the latter part of the 20th century many organisations developed out of the Christen-Studentevereniging (CSV).  Stellenbosch University played a prominent role with the annual mission week at the Studentekerk. This was emulated at other tertiary institutions all around the country. Jan Hanekom (at the Hofmeyr Centre and linked to South African Association of World Evangelisation SAAWE), would influence scores of students.
          At a camp for theological students in Genadendal, a tokkelok from the Sendingkerk, Esau Jacobs, was deeply moved with regard to ecumenical work, notably for the work of Ds. Beyers Naudé and the Christian Institute.
          He started his pastoral ministry in the Transkei. Jakes, as he became widely known, also had a definite vision to reach out to Muslims. He inspired many a young student, including the author. At the student evangelistic outreach at Harmony Park in 1964/5, Jakes exposed the group to ‘spiritual warfare’ when he joined the students and young teachers on New Year’s Day, 1965.
The student outreach at Harmony Park in the mid-1960s contained seed for spiritual revival. It also contributed to the spiritual maturing of leaders such as Rev. Abel Hendricks, who led the 1964/5 camp along with Rev. Chris Wessels. In later years Abel Hendricks became President of the Methodist Church and Chris Wessels became a respected leader in the Moravian Church. Allan Boesak, Jattie Bredekamp, Esau Jacobs, Franklin Sonn and David Savage are but a few young men from these Harmony Park outreaches who subsequently became influential members in their respective denominations and in society at large.
          The CSV/SCA became tainted by its proximity to the government’s Apartheid policy. The University Christian Movement (UCM) which started off in opposition, became the cradle for radicalism where Black Theology and Black Consciousness could flourish, spawning a poisonous vibe of anti-Apartheid, anti-Afrikaner resentment. Scripture Union and the fairly new (for South Africa) Campus Crusade for Christ were breezes of biblical non-racial fresh air. Barry Isaacs joined the latter ministry in due course. In the new millennium he would become a widely respected Church leader.

Pioneering Work among Muslims
In the mid-1970s the missionary effort to the Muslims at the Cape was revived through the pioneering work of Gerhard and Hannelore Nehls. Nehls started with regular outreach to Muslims in the suburb of Salt River in 1980, later calling his work Life Challenge. 
                                Churches remained rather
                            indifferent to Muslim Outreach
Support from the Cape churches was almost non-existent at the time. In fact, the churches remained rather indifferent to Muslim outreach in general. Suburbs like Woodstock and Salt River had become increasingly Islamic, due in part to this indifference. Prostitution, drug abuse and the sale of houses to Muslims who had been tenants, were however the major factors, which pushed many Christians out of these residential areas during the late 1980s and early 1990s.

More Power Encounters
More covert power encounters would follow in the 1970s under the ministry of Ds. Pietie Victor’s Straatwerk. Drug addicts were among those who were set free through the power of the Gospel. Many a satanist or person under occult bondage discovered that there is indeed quite a lot of power in the blood of Jesus - especially when believers stand together in prayer.
                            Many a Satanist or person under
                              occult bondage discovered that
                            there is power in the blood of Jesus
          Prayer had been used quite substantially in the outreach to Cape Muslims. For many years Muslim outreach at the Cape and SIM Life Challenge were almost synonymous. Under the leadership of the German missionary Gerhard Nehls, the founder of Life Challenge, his team had people praying while co-workers visited Muslim homes. Groups pray before they would go on outreach.
          In the mid-1980s, his German missionary colleague Walter Gschwandtner had his group praying regularly in the home of the Abrahams family in Bo-Kaap, where the Muslim head of the home came to faith in Jesus as his Lord just before he died in 1983. Knowledge about the Bo-Kaap prayer meetings almost went amiss when the Gschwandtner family left for Kenya.

7. Vanguards of Revival
          In the radical rejection of their parents’ way of life the hippies of the late 1960s repudiated the affluent life-style in which making money is the object of life and work. Not all was negative of that generation, though.
          The Jesus Movement was the major Christian element within the hippie subculture. Members were called Jesus People or Jesus Freaks. The movement came to Cape Town from Johannesburg in the early 1970s. Brian O’Donnell and Dave Valentine soon became the prime movers here.
          Brian O’Donnell owned the Hippie Market of the city as well as a night club called The Factory. When he was spiritually revived, he decided to conduct an outreach on Monday nights and later also at Green Point Stadium. The church hall of St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church soon became a beehive of Jesus People activity.
          The Holy Spirit moved mightily among the young people, ultimately leading to the Hippie Revival that paved the way for ten new Assemblies of God (AoG) congregations among ‘Whites’ and five among ‘Coloureds’. With ‘Coloured’ AoG pastors like James Valentine and Eddie Roman working closely alongside their ‘White’ colleagues, this was a significant contribution to the breaking down of the racial barriers of the Apartheid era at grassroots level.
                                      Cape Revival vibes radiated
                                      to the ends of the Earth
          The revival vibes radiated even much further afield. In Grahamstown the ‘charismatic renewal’ as it was called, moved into the Anglican Church where Bishop Bill Burnett was impacted. The Holy Spirit movement flowed via a big national church event, the Congress on Mission and Evangelism with Dr Billy Graham in 1973. Held in Durban in March 1973, the Congress was attended by 630 delegates and observers from 31 different denominations. The original idea of the Congress in Durban came from Michael Cassidy of Africa Enterprise and John Rees, General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches (SACC).

Hippie Revival spills into District Six                                                                                                         The Hippie Revival spilled over amongst young people of District Six. Under the leadership of Clive and Ursula Jacobs at the Sheppard Street Baptist Church, bubbling youth work developed.  
            The use of the bigger church hall of Holy Cross Roman Catholic Church displayed that there was a non-denominational flavour of the movement. This was no superficial 'happy clappy' occasion. Youth rallies were also held in neutral venues like the Palace Bioscope (Cinema) in the suburb Salt River. Soon the big auditorium was too small.
          Young people turned from drugs and gangsterism to Christ. Some started cottage meetings, others held open air services. Prayer meetings were conducted in the surrounds of Woodstock, Salt River and District Six. Pastor Andy Lam and Eddie Edson, two former gangsters, played a pivotal in all of this. From this movement many young people went to night Bible Schools and colleges. Some of them became pastors and leaders in their denominations. Around 50 young people from this revival became pastors or pastors' wives.

Worldwide Ripple Effects of the Hippie Revival
At the Congress on Mission and Evangelism in Durban in March 1973 the racial barriers came down significantly for the first time in this country. Dr Billy Graham's insistence on the absence of any segregation among the audience played no small role. Durban was also an important forerunner for Lausanne the following year when the evangelical-ecumenical schism was addressed as well as the unbiblical separation of evangelism and compassionate outreach.
          This Congress on Mission and Evangelism of 1973 birthed PACLA (Pan African Christian Leadership Assembly) in Nairobi in 1976. The Durban event furthermore led to the related SACLA in Pretoria in 1979 where the German-born Reinhardt Bonnke was divinely touched. In subsequent years Bonnke would take the Gospel to many African countries and further afield.
          Whereas earlier congresses apparently hardly seemed to touch the Cape, the Durban event did it in no uncertain way. One of the leaders, Professor Nico Smith, was based at Stellenbosch University with its hallowed theological faculty. From there he started bringing believers from different races into each other’s houses.

Conscientious Objection debated
In due course, the SACC (South African Council of Churches) became the main opposition to the government. Cross-pollination was taking place with input from the Christian Institute (CI) and related organisations like the Black Sash, which brought their objection against conscription to military service into the open in 1973.
          The SACC confrontation took a clearer perspective in 1974 on the issue of conscientious objection to military service. In the preamble to a motion there it was noted that in the case of South Africa one cannot speak of a ‘just war’ because ‘Whites’ would wage war in ‘defence of a basically unjust and discriminatory society.’ This would lead on the long run to the End Conscription Campaign (ECC).
          Reverend Douglas Bax prodded away within the Presbyterian Church to keep the denomination relevant. Already in 1973 the church reacted on the SPRO-CAS[21] report Apartheid and the Church with a Declaration of Faith in the trinitarian form of a creed that included the words ‘We believe in the Son… breaking down every barrier of religion, race, culture or class’, expanded in 1981 to include ‘every separating barrier.’ The Church and the State were summoned to seek reconciliation and unity between all and justice and freedom for all.’
The defiant stance of the South African Council of Churches (SACC) in opposition to Apartheid intensified with the appointment of Dr Desmond Tutu as General Secretary in 1978, a position he vacated when he became Bishop of Johannesburg. He was succeeded by Dr Beyers Naudé in 1985, who had been unbanned the previous year. Dr Beyers Naudé understood his role as a caretaker.

A strange Mix: conscientious Objection and charismatic Renewal
As was expected, the SACC motion opposing military conscription - by supporting conscientious objection - made headlines which evoked the wrath of the government. Mr P.W. Botha, then the Minister of Defence and a later Prime Minister, indicated that he would introduce a bill in Parliament that would provide for a fine of up to R 10,000 or ten years imprisonment.
          Dr. Alex Boraine, a former president of the Methodist Church, led the attack sympathetic to the SACC resolution as a Progressive Party member of Parliament, suggesting that many would have no alternative than to break the law. The most interesting support of the church resolution came from Bill Burnett, the newly elected Archbishop of Cape Town. In his ‘enthronement’ sermon in August 1974 before a huge congregation in St George’s Cathedral that included the State President and military chiefs, he called for a new Pentecost. The connection between charismatic renewal and non-violence had found a powerful advocate. Archbishop Burnett was a strong supporter of the charismatic renewal in the Anglican Church.

A Personal Interlude
Through the mediation of the Moravian Seminary director, Rev Henning Schlimm, Rosemarie got a post at the St Martini Lutheran Church in the city. The government refused to give her a work permit. It was clear that I had to choose between her and South Africa. When I chose the former the Church Board cooperated wonderfully to secure a post for me in Germany, to start in December 1973.
When Rosemarie and I had become engaged to be married in Germany in 1974, I was still very much battling with my exile, craving very much to return to South Africa. Because of the prohibition of racially mixed nixed marriages at that time, I was toying with the idea of coming to minister in the Transkei, where the prohibition of racially mixed marriages was due to be scrapped at independence of the homeland.  To this end I started to learn Xhosa with the aid of audio cassettes. However, I did not discuss my intentions in this regard with Rosemarie fully. Taking for granted that she wanted to be a mission­ary one day, I expected that she would join me to go and serve in the Transkei.
During her visit to West Berlin in mid-1974 where I was serving as an assistant pastor, I casually communicated my intention to return to Southern Africa. I was completely taken by surprise to hear that she was not ready at all to go to ‘Africa’ with me. The termination of our engagement was on the cards because I was quite determined to return to the African continent as soon as possible. I was definitely not going to budge on this score and she was just as determined. It is quite strange that we never discussed this matter thoroughly before we got engaged!
         In complete desperation we prayed together, asking God to guide us through His Word. Divine intervention seemed to be the only possibility to save our union. Both of us knew that it would not be the proper way to handle Scripture, but we decided to seek God’s mind in desperation by opening the Bible at random, but prayerfully. When the Word of God fell open at the verse where Ruth said to Naomi, ‘I shall go where you go’, we were filled with awe and thank­fulness. We were extremely elated as we sensed that this was God’s special word for us. We could go into the unknown future together, and that’s what both of us really wanted!
         Thankfully, we didn’t pursue the matter further. For the moment, parting was not an issue any more. We were overjoyed at this confirmation that we would be serving the Lord together, wherever He would lead us!
            God had to humble me at this this time as I was still very much an anti-apartheid activist exile who longed to return to my beloved South Africa. I wrote many letters to the government of the day. In 1978 I collated and commented them, hoping to publish it in book form with the title Honger na Geregtigheid. I gave a copy to Hein Postma, the principal of the local Moravian primary school in Zeist at that time. He became a very good friend of us along with his wife Wieneke. He however blew my bubble with his loving advice. Honger na Geregtigheid was too critical in his view, not loving enough. Hein compared it to an overdose of medication to a sick patient. He furthermore noted that he missed forgiveness, love and compassion in the manuscript. (I changed it completely and printed a very much tone down version in 2015 as What God joined together.)
         Through a ‘Joseph experience’ during personal devotions the Lord thoroughly dealt with my craving after a return to South Africa. Like Joseph who was exiled to Egypt, I was in the meantime prepared to serve the Lord anywhere in the world, quite prepared to be a permanent exile, never to return to South Africa if that was the confirmed divine guidance.
Rosemarie was however not at all enthralled at my idea of going to a country like Egypt. But she agreed - initially patiently but surely not enthusiastically - that I could continue with new studies in Mathematics, in order to use that as an entrance into one of the countries that were closed for Christian missionaries.
     Although I had little concrete proof that my activism had contributed in any way, I did sense some satisfaction when the law in my home country that prohibited people from different races to marry, was finally repealed in 1985.
Prayer in the Process of Change
Prayer was very much part of the process of change in the country.  This is demonstrated by times of prayer and fasting in St George’s Cathedral.                                                                                                                     Towards the end of 1974 and for several months thereafter, a large number of ‘Black’ student leaders were arrested and detained without trial by the security police. Some were held in solitary confinement
for long periods. During that time a prayer vigil was held at St George’s Cathedral, where various people committed themselves to prayer within 24-hour sessions by name for some student. The reflection of Professor Francis Wilson for 13 February 1975 has been printed, including his notes on Nyameko Barney Pityana, who subsequently became a top academic and the registrar of UNISA: ‘For such a man as he to be incarcerated is a judgement not upon Barney but upon the society which has acted so violently against him’. All students were finally released without being charged of any crime.
            Dr Francis Grim, a committed Christian and prayer warrior, was the worldwide leader of the Hospital Christian Fellowship for many years from the Cape suburb of Pinelands. Dr Francis Grim initiated a National Day of Prayer, called for 7 January 1976. However, this was not perceived by people of colour as something to join. In fact, few people from these ranks knew about the day of prayer. The all-‘White’ organizers had no vision to draw in people from other racial backgrounds. Yet, this move may have stemmed the tide of Communist-inspired violent revolution, to which the Soweto June 16 upheavals in 1976 could easily have led. Grim gave a challenging title to a booklet that was published by his organisation: Pray or Perish. At any rate, God was already at work. On that very June 16, 1976 Johan Botha, a young policeman, was posted in Soweto. Supernaturally God would use him 18 years later to bring many in the nation to pray.[22]

Cape Build-up to Soweto June 1976
Thousands of ‘Blacks’ continued to come into the Western Cape in the 1970s in spite of the government intention to remove ‘Blacks’ from the region. About 100 shacks were built secretively at Werkgenot, near to the University of the Western Cape. Selected shacks were knocked down and women arrested while their husbands were at work. Finally two ‘squatters’ brought a suit against the Bantu Affairs Administrative Board for destruction of property. The judge ruled in favour of the ‘squatters’, lecturing the officials to respect the little possessions the ‘squatters’ had.  The Board did not contest the ruling, but their officials continued to harass the ‘squatters’. Pretoria would of course not allow itself to be challenged by ‘Blacks’ without response.

Catapulted into Activism
The news of the 16th of June 1976 catastrophe in the ‘Black’ township of Soweto, near to Johannesburg, catapulted me into more activism. (Protesting secondary school learners against the enforcement of Afrikaans as the language medium in certain subjects were brutally treated and some of them were killed.) With Pastor Uwe Holm, a leader of the Lutheran State Church in Berlin, I got spontaneously and fully immersed in organizing a protest meeting in the ‘Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtnis’ Church.                                                   After my ‘Soweto’ speech in the Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtnis Church in Central Berlin, I was thrusted into the role of mediator in a dispute between foreign African students and the local authorities. This led to a friendship with Heinz Krieg, who was connected to Moral Re-armament.           

Reactions to 16 June 1976                                                                                                                   The South African Council of Churches (SACC) appealed to all churches to give guidance and support to a shocked and bereaved society and to those who by virtue of the vote bore the responsibility for fuelling the oppressive structure. The SACC called on the churches to observe Sunday 20th June 1976 as a day of prayer, bringing to their attention II Chronicles 7:14. ‘If my people who are called by my name humble themselves and pray and seek my face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and will forgive their sin and  heal their land.’

At the SACC conference in July of that year, Bishop Tutu set liberation firmly on the agenda in an address entitled, “God-given Dignity and the Quest for Liberation in the Light of the South African Dilemma.”  His paper closed with the following words:The struggle for liberation, a truly biblical struggle, is crucial for the survival of South Africa. It must succeed. Yes, liberation is coming because our God is the God of the Exodus, the liberator God…
In the aftermath of Soweto 1976 the Anglican Archbishop Bill Burnett actualized 2 Chronicles 7:14, the Bible verse that would play such a crucial role in the transformation process in the new millennium. In an open letter to Mr B.J. Vorster in September 1976 he wrote: ‘Unless White Christians in particular admit the wrongs they have done to ‘Black’ people and take action to redress them, there can be no possibility of healing in our Land.’ However, not even exposure of corruption in the government Department of Information, which finally led to Mr P.W. Botha becoming the new Prime Minister in 1978, brought about significant change.
              The Cape saw the beginnings
                                    of an activist type kind of prayer

The Cape Aftermath of Soweto 1976
The Cape aftermath of the events in Soweto in June 1976 saw the beginnings of a new kind of prayer - the activist type. Gugulethu High School learners requested to pray for their peers in Soweto at the general assembly, which was duly refused. Blanket refusals of permission for peaceful demonstration – along with brutal repression of any protest - made the young people only more resolute. Young people saw the need of addressing the addiction to alcohol of the adults. The single men in the hostels especially were heavy drinkers. A country-wide ban on liquor was declared on 11 October 1976, but it was only successful in Soweto. The Cape shebeen (illegal liquor outlets) owners opposed the ban heavily, although a number of shebeens had been destroyed and many bottle stores gutted, Young people were the main perpetrators of this carnage. The duped liquor sellers enlisted their customers - especially the migrant labourers - to fight the young revolutionaries. Soon the township war between the migrants, donned with white head bands and dubbed the Witdoeke, were pitted against the Comrades.
We can safely surmise that more people were agonizing in prayer for an end to the killings and violence than before these years. Some of the increased prayer awareness became known only later, such as businessmen and other believers who interceded in the mornings and during lunchtime at Syfrets in Wale Street in the Mother City.

The Christian Institute (CI) as a Vanguard for Change
The Christian Institute (CI), led by Dr Beyers Naudé, was always one step ahead of the SACC and the churches in their resistance to Apartheid. It was often the case that what the CI practiced, the SACC, followed by its member churches, also did. The CI discerned that the initiative for change in South Africa lay firmly in the hands of the ‘Blacks’. This in itself represented a fundamental shift from an earlier position the organisation had held.[23] In a statement immediately following the Soweto uprising, the CI said: “the Government is no longer in a position to determine the course of political events, not only in Soweto, but also in South Africa as a whole; nor is it capable of guiding in any way the nature, direction or pace of change.”
The CI proposed that ‘Blacks’ be given the freedom to elect truly recognized leaders from their midst, including those in prison, and those who were in exile. These leaders would then ‘participate in a national convention with a view to dismantling in the shortest possible period the unjust political and social structures of our land and to present to our country a political policy of liberation based on freedom and justice for all.’ They saw any action, which fell short of this demand as ‘a dangerous stumbling block to the achievement of fundamental peaceful change.’ The CI called upon their ‘White’ ministers and members to publicly retract their support from the policies of the Government unequivocally, and to make personal and collective representations to their members of parliament to press for a conference of ‘Black’ and ‘White’ leaders, recognising that there could be no peace until all people were totally liberated.  The radical stance of the CI ushered in its own demise. The organisation was banned on 19 October 1977, along with a number of other organisations and Beyers Naude banned to a sort of house arrest.[24] He was only allowed to attend church on Sunday morning but not meet other people there.

Personal Attempts towards peaceful Change           
After the Soweto debacle I feared an escalation of violence that could lead to the widely expected bloodbath of cataclysmic proportions in my beloved South Africa. Hereafter I attempted to start a front for peaceful change, hoping to use non-violent means to oppose the racist South African structures. I wrote letters to various friends, but support was not forthcom­ing. Very few responded and all bar one of those persons whom I approached had given up on peaceful change in South Africa.
         My effort was unsuccessful. I was much too naive to expect a better response. The only support I received was from our friend Rachel Balie, a distant relative (my grandmother was a Balie from Genadendal), who had come to study in Berlin. The violent reaction of the government to the peaceful protest of the learners was to almost all and sundry the proof that the days for boycotts and the like were over.     
         When we left for Holland in September 1977 to pastor the Moravian congregation of Utrecht, Heinz and Gisela Krieg gave me a challenging Moral Re-armament publication as a parting gift: South Africa, what kind of change? When I read in it about personal friends from the Cape like Franklin Sonn and Howard Eybers, I was encouraged to increase my activism for racial reconciliation in my home country.                            

More Activism
Soon after our arrival in Holland in September 1977 we received a letter from our friend Rachel Balie. She had returned to South Africa after the completion of her studies. She informed us that Chris Wessels, a minister colleague and long-time friend, had been imprisoned. Nobody from his family knew where he was held. Chris was never formally accused or brought before a court of law. Later we understood that his main 'offences' were his involvement and role in the formulating of a critical statement at the conference of the South African Council of Churches and that he helped to care for the families of political prisoners on behalf of that body. (Shortly before this, Steve Biko died while in police custody. We feared that the same thing could happen to Chris.)
         Egged on by Rosemarie, my activist spirit was aroused anew. I shifted into activist mode, attempting to nudge the Moravian Church leaders to act on behalf of our friend in detention. Initially I needed quite a battle to get our church authorities in Bad Boll (Germany) on board, but they subsequently also urged Moravian Church leaders in other countries to write to the respective South African Embassies. We heard later that this move possibly saved Chris’s life.
            At the end of 1977 Rosemarie and I attended the Moral Re-armament (MRA) conference in Caux, Switzerland. There the apology of a South African for the hurts of the government made a deep impression on me. I perceived confession as something which could change the social and political landscape of South Africa.            While we were visiting the Cape – having come from Holland as a racially mixed small family with our one- and a-half year-old son Danny in November 1978 - I was terribly angered by the reaction of the Moravian Church Board chairperson to my suggestion to come and serve in South Africa. This coincided with the response of the government when we wanted to travel in the same train compartment as a family of three from Cape Town to Johannesburg. My expectation in both cases was actually unreasonable and unrealistic, but all the same I was hereafter determined not to put my foot on South African soil again. There I had no interest at all to be introduced to and interact with Professor Johan Heyns, the Chairperson of the Broederbond, the apartheid think tank at the time.    I was too angry to come up with a Christ-like reaction.                                               I had one last carnal wish - to worship with Dr Beyers Naudé, the gigantic rebel against the Apartheid status quo. He was basically under house arrest, only allowed to attend church at that time, entering as the last person and leaving as the first, prohibited to interact with any congregant. He was a kafferboetie, treated like a leper by the rank and file Afrikaner.) He and his wife organised for us to visit them in their home afterwards, thus defying the Apartheid-related instructions.
Determination to fight the demonic Apartheid Ideology
With a few believers linked to Moral Rearmament, Rosemarie and I visited the church that the late Dr Naudé and his wife attended. I had intended that visit to be my farewell gesture of solidarity with the politically oppressed of the country. A miracle happened that Sunday when I was changed from within. Dr Naudé’s complete lack of bitterness impressed me.
                                               I became more determined
                                                   than ever to fight the
                                                      Apartheid ideology
In His sovereign way God made me more determined than ever to fight the Apartheid ideology, endeavouring to bring about racial reconciliation in my home country.
          After our return to Holland following that six-week visit in 1978, I saw a ministry of racial reconciliation even more as a personal duty and charge to the country of my birth. After reading in the newspaper that a church delegation from the influential (‘White’) Dutch Reformed Church - including Professors Johan Heyns and Willie Jonker - was in Holland to attend a synod in Lunteren, I took the initiative to meet them. I saw this as a possibility to make amends for my stubbornness and headstrong refusal to meet Professor Heyns on our visit to Johannesburg the previous year. However, the only possibility that Dr Heyns, the leader of the delegation, could offer me was to meet them at Schiphol Airport just before their return to South Africa. This I did. Subsequently these Church leaders would be quite influential in bringing about significant change in the Dutch Reformed Church.

Aftermath of my Schiphol Airport Rendezvous
After my airport rendezvous I corresponded with Professor Heyns, encouraging him to include theologians of colour like Dr Allan Boesak in the plans of the denomination for overhauling a booklet on race relations in the church.[25] Indirectly I also tried to reconcile the two theologians, who were respectively leading the influential “Broederbond” and “Broederkring”. (I knew from our student days how my friend Allan had been raving about Dr Heyns, his lecturer in Biblical Studies at the University College of the Western Cape).

A Prayer Campaign in District Six Resistance         
Significantly, the second phase of resistance with regard to the removal of ‘Coloureds’ from District Six was started by a prayer campaign. The vehicle to carry the campaign was the District Six Ministers’ Fraternal, an energetic group of clergymen from a few local churches. Rev Basil van Rensburg, who had come to District Six with advertising skills in September 1978, launched a fundraising initiative, along with the new prayer campaign: ‘our aim is to start in a small way with Holy Cross as a nucleus and gradually to build a forceful campaign of prayer and action until official thinking on District Six changes’. The parish priest of St. Philip’s Anglican Church expressed some of this commitment as he invited other congregations to join in prayer: ‘May we all by the Power of His Holy Spirit seek nothing else but a miracle from the Lord.’ Lay people were well represented in the ‘Friends of District Six’ movement, an offspring of the District Six Ministers’ Fraternal. The members came not only from the above-mentioned churches but also from other circles, notably Muslims and Jews.
          That a part of the old District Six, along with Walmer Estate, was later formally declared ‘Coloured’ residential areas was surely predominantly due to these prayers and efforts although some people alleged that it was a sop by the government to keep the protesters happy.  Nevertheless, ‘Whites’ hereafter refused to buy property in District Six en masse, possibly not wanting to be identified with the perpetrators of the injustice. This created some embarrassment to the government, but the suggestion that District Six should become an open residential area would not bring them off course, not even for the time being. That District Six never became a ‘White’ suburb was surely an answer to prayer. In fact, God turned the injustice perpetrated in District Six around, stirring the conscience of ‘White’ South Africa like few other Apartheid measures had done.

A spiritual Earthquake in Pretoria                                                                                                 
Since 1978 Gerda Leithgöb, an Afrikaner believer, offered confession with her prayer team at the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria. Their prayers and confession surely helped to effect a change in the spiritual complexion of the country’s capital that made true democracy possible.  That prayer ministry for the city of Pretoria and for the country was the prelude to the South African Christian Leadership Assembly (SACLA) event in the national capital the following year.  This conference was the equivalent of a spiritual earthquake. Professor David Bosch, a giant rebel against Apartheid, was its leader.  SACLA influenced the whole country deeply in a positive way and the conference was evidently part of God’s plan to transform the Apartheid stronghold and capital of South Africa. Pastor Ed Roebert initiated a gathering of like-minded pastors with the purpose of fellowship and mutual encouragement. Soon he met regularly with Reinhardt Bonnke, Ray McCauley, Fred Roberts, Tim Salmon and Nicky van der Westhuizen. In due course many new charismatic churches were established and men with unusually anointed ministries appeared on the scene.

The Koinonia Declaration                                                                                           
Dr Nico Smith, Professor of Theology in Stellenbosch, played a significant role in starting Koinonia, a movement that organised inter-racial weekends in different towns and cities. Participants would always lodge with someone from a different ethnic group. Christians of different races started meeting socially as families in order to get to know and understand each other. From their ranks the Koinonia Declaration followed in 1977 when three Dutch Reformed Church leaders in the Western Cape reacted against a government ruling which made opposition to detention without trial unlawful. They also called for transparency regarding ‘the handling of matters relating to the security of the state' (e.g. the prior series of bannings, detentions and arrests on October 19, 1977). The prayerful attitude of these clergymen was revealed in the first sentences of the Koinonia Declaration: ‘…We also believe that the prayers of just men have great power. We therefore ge all Christians to pray without ceasing for those in authority that…they may not be led astray by unbiblical ideologies…’

Conciliatory Church Moves
A significant church initiative was the South African Christian Leadership Assembly (SACLA) of 1979. However, it would probably be safe to say that other factors like the 40 years of Apartheid oppression - combined with the prophetic WCC and SACC actions between 1948 and 1988 – also helped to conscientise the poor and the oppressed. In this, the situation was radicalized towards the inevitable conflict.

Bliss Brings Blessings
Under the auspices of Africa Enterprise (AE) David Bliss came to South Africa in 1967 from the USA as a student. The relatively young missions and evangelistic agency AE started by Michael Cassidy in 1962, had such a profound effect on David Bliss that he decided to postpone his return to Princeton University for a year. After his marriage to Deborah (Debby) in 1972, the couple came to South Africa in 1979 as AE workers on the Witwatersrand University campus in Johannesburg.  That year the South African Christian Leadership Assembly (SACLA) took place in Pretoria, an event that changed their lives. The Holy Spirit confronted them with the issue of unreached people groups and the possibility of recruiting South Africans as missionaries.                     
The next year the couple participated in the students’ conference in Edinburgh, which ran parallel to the 70th anniversary celebrations of the founding of the World Council of Churches. The 1980 event brought the use of non-Westerners as missionaries into focus. For Dave and Debby Bliss this was a natural follow-up to SACLA in Pretoria the previous year.

                                  10. Prayer Waves from the Cape

Without expressing it in so many words, the booklet ‘South Africa: the miracle of little waves’ by Dr Charles Robertson suggests that little waves of revival from the Cape might have started in the tumultuous year of 1985. At that time racial separation was still the major dividing factor in the country and racial tension was escalating towards a climax in the mid-1980s.                                                            Any scenario of upheaval calls for intense prayer. After giving some examples of ‘little waves’, and of individuals who rebelled against the status quo of racial separation, Robertson summarized: ‘The changes ... were rooted in concerted prayer for revival and prayer for change in the nation.’
          Indeed, some moves had started at the Cape which would send ripples around the world.

A Cape Example with worldwide Impact
When World Literature Crusade launched their Change the World School of Prayer,[26] the South African prayer manual was published in Cape Town in 1981. It seems as if this manual – was not very widely distributed. Compare this with Patrick Johnstone’s Operation World that became known worldwide in due course. World Literature Crusade’s publication might nevertheless have been the advance guard for the Open Doors campaign of seven years of prayer for the demise of the Soviet Union. The group in California (USA) documented some of their experiences, praying systematically over 40,000 continuous hours. The Change the World School of Prayer suggested that believers should pray strategically. They promoted intercession for 100 unevangelized Chinese and Arab-Muslim nations. Rev. George Buckley, Vice President of World Literature Crusade, a New Zealander, ministered powerfully at the Cape. The first Change the World School of Prayer in Cape Town was attended by 1,130 people over two week-ends. The vision of the school of prayer was ‘to see a million Christians in South Africa pray for revival and world evangelism by the end of 1986.’
          At one of these events in Windhoek, Ds. Bennie Mostert was divinely touched. He would become a major mover of the prayer waves that had started from the Cape in 1981, sending powerful ripples throughout the continent in the decades hereafter.

A Wave of Prayer starts at UWC                                                                                                                 Charles Robertson, a lecturer at the University of the Western Cape (UWC) from 1971-76, became part of the prayer emphasis in 1983. After his father’s death in 1979, he was thrust into a quagmire of spiritual turmoil. The business he had started was failing. The combination of these experiences brought him to his knees. Hereafter he broke through into a living faith in Jesus as his Lord.
          Dr Robertson was approached to help fund the hiring of a bus to take participants to a prayer service at the historical Sendingsgestig Museum in the Mother City’s Long Street, which coincided with a Frontiers Missions Conference at UWC.

A national Prayer Awakening erupts                                                                                                        The Sendingsgestig Museum itself would become the venue for Concerts of Prayer. That event reverberated throughout the country, promoting the prayer movement. In 1983 a prayer awakening started in a few congregations all around South Africa. One of these was a small group of intercessors led by Gerda Leithgöb in Pretoria that helped set them on a path previously unexplored in this country. Simultaneously, Bennie Mostert, a Dutch Reformed minister, started a newsletter to mobilize prayer in Namibia. Mostert dubbed his newsletter for Namibia Prayer Action Elijah.
The Lausanne Committee for World Evangelisation and the Korean Evangelical Fellowship co-hosted the 1st World Prayer Assembly in Seoul, South Korea, in June 1984. This historic Assembly is widely recognized as the birth of the modern prayer movement, encouraging new types of prayer such as intercession for nations and continents, concerts of prayer, national and international prayer networks, a desire to fill the world with prayer, and a focus on the unfinished task of world evangelization.         

International Moves  
In 1983 Open Doors called Christians worldwide to pray for a period of seven years for the collapse of the Soviet Union and Communism. At conferences in Germany and Holland, missionaries also started praying more intensely for the truth to be revealed to Muslims from 1987. 
          The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 ushered in the collapse of the Soviet Empire. This was the equivalent of a spiritual earthquake, also for the Muslim world. Yet, Christians were generally not interested in Muslims at this time, let alone concerned enough to pray for them. Until the 1990s only very few missionaries volunteered for work in Muslim countries.
         All this changed after Iraq’s troops invaded Kuwait in 1990. The run-up to the Gulf War sparked off the call by Open Doors for ten years of prayer for the Muslim World.
It is appropriate that the revived prayer movement started at the Cape where Andrew Murray had written his School des Gebeds in 1885. The Change the World School of Prayer appears to have inspired the initiators of a booklet, published by Hospital Christian Fellowship (HCF, later called Healthcare Christian Fellowship).  
                                    A little booklet motivated Christians towards
                                    a month of prayer for selected Muslim countries,
The Dutch section of the Hospital Christian Fellowship in Voorthuizen, which had South Africa’s Dr Francis Grim as its worldwide leader, nudged Christians towards a month of prayer for selected Muslim countries, with the publication of a little booklet in the early 1990s. They referred to specific needs in the 31-day prayer guide.[27] In turn, this appears to have been the model for the 30-day Muslim Prayer Focus that went around the globe during Ramadan in the years after 1993.
          1992 was the year during which mission leaders decided to call Christians worldwide to pray for Muslims during Ramadan. Floyd McClung and other YWAM leaders had retreated to a secluded place in Egypt in 1991. There the Lord gave them the vision for prayer mobilization during Ramadan, printed as booklets that caused unprecedented changes in the Muslim world.
The 30-day Muslim Prayer Focus was printed and distributed around the Globe with information on different issues relating to Islam. This was repeated for many years until the internet option made its actual printing almost redundant.[28]

The D’Oliviera Controversy                                                                                                                                                                                                       Quite a number of people of colour left South Africa because of their skin pigmentation, which prevented them from using their talents to the full. The history of the cricketer Basil D’Oliviera, one of the greatest cricketing all-rounders which South Africa produced, is perhaps the best known in a long list of Capetonians of colour who had to go elsewhere to get recognition. The cricketer who was raised in Bo-Kaap’s Jordaan and Bloem Streets, went on to play for England from 1966 in an illustrious career.          South African cricket officials in 1968 exerted pressure on the Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) hierarchy, leading to the decision not to pick him. When Warwickshire's Tom Cartwright was ruled out because of injury, D'Oliveira was called up into the squad. South African Prime Minister B. J. Vorster had already made it clear that D'Oliveira's inclusion would amount to political interference and was thus not acceptable. Despite many negotiations, the tour was cancelled. This was seen as a watershed in the sporting boycott of apartheid South Africa. The D'Oliveira Affair had a massive impact in turning international opinion against the apartheid regime in South Africa. It prompted changes in South African sport and eventually in society.

‘Black’ Families fight to be together
Strictly speaking, one would not expect to find the work of the rather secular Black Sash in a book of this nature, but their contribution in the scrapping of influx control should be duly honoured. Mr Veli Komani, a resident of Gugulethu, qualified for living in the Cape because he had lived in the city for more than 15 years and he could prove that he worked for the same employer for ten years. He proceeded to challenge the vicious influx control laws. This type of laws restricted ‘Blacks’ severely if they wanted to come to the cities, disrupting ‘Black’ family life in a big way. Thus women from the ‘homelands’ were not allowed to join their husbands.  Mr Veli Komani took action on behalf of his wife, Noceba Komani, so that she could come and live with him in Gugulethu.
          Upon intervention by the Athlone Office of the Black Sash, Mr Geoff Budlender, a young attorney linked to the Legal Resource Centre, would make his mark. A brilliant performance by Advocate Arthur Chaskalson turned the tables on the government at the Appeal Court in Bloemfontein. 'It was a dramatic victory, a triumph for the lawyering of Chaskalson, Kentridge and Budlender and the tenacity of Komani'.
              For quite a few years hereafter government bureaucrats sought to subvert the effect. But seed was sown. A blow was struck against the pass laws, ultimately to be repealed in the mid-1980s.

Social Challenges to Apartheid
The bungling and red-tape of government officials made the run-up to our honeymoon in South Africa in 1975 rather traumatic and ultimately risky. Further visits to the country in 1978 and 1981 became harbingers of quiet acts of defiance and opposition to two sets of laws, viz. those that prohibited racially mixed cross gender relationships and those around so-called Influx Control.
         Initially another visit to South Africa seemed a non-runner in 1980. I had just resigned as minister of the Moravian Church of Utrecht in the Netherlands.
          In August of that year we received the news from South Africa that Magdalene, my only sister, had contracted leukaemia. She had played such an important role towards the education of us, her three younger brothers. Letters from South Africa with regard to the illness of Magdalene initially encouraged us to quite an extent, hoping that we might still see her alive at a possible visit at the end of that year. Diagnosis of leukaemia was like a death sentence where the patient was only expected to live for a short time. We knew that we could not get excited too soon, even though we always believed that nothing was impossible for God. Didn’t He prove it so often in our lives?
          Rommel Roberts and his wife Celeste visited us at this time after they had just fled to escape another arrest after Rommel’s involvement with a bus boycott at the Cape. The friendship with them would impact us significantly. (Rommel would later become the PA of Bishop Desmond Tutu.) The pregnancy of Celeste and the loss of their first baby combined to get my wife Rosemarie deeply involved in the plight of the ‘illegals of Nyanga and Crossroads’ during a six-month stay in South Africa. (That stint followed the death of my sister in December 1980.)

SACLA Clinic in Crossroads
In 1980 a young physician, Dr Ivan Toms, launched the South African Christian Leadership Assembly (SACLA) Clinic in Crossroads as a sequel to the big inter-denominational event in Pretoria in 1979. This was the first of its kind, after various denominations had started small ministries of compassion in the Crossroads informal settlement.
Some Stellenbosch Missiology students under Professor Nico Smith were worried that their denomination, the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC), seemed to be unmoved by what was happening in Crossroads. Prof. Smith became very controversial when he heeded their request to take a group of DRC (‘White’) theological students to the informal settlement in 1981. This courageous move shook the Afrikaner establishment throughout the country. To allow one of their Church leaders lecturing at the hallowed theological faculty Stellenbosch University - while he was ‘rebellious’ - was completely unacceptable to the state and university authorities. This ultimately led to Professor Smith flight to a post as pastor in a ‘Black’ township from where he however had an even bigger impact nationally.
          After being called to book in an aftermath of the event, Professor Smith agreed to refrain from making a statement to the secular press. He did subsequently, however, publish his statement in what became a front-page report of the Kerkbode. In his statement, Professor Smith criticized the government for its handling of the Nyanga ‘squatters’. Even more unconventionally, he lashed the Church for its non-involvement in the situation. He and his students challenged the Dutch Reformed Church regarding the ‘painful policy’ of resettlement and migratory labour. The influence of Professor Smith reverberated later across the country via his students, even to far-away places like Ermelo in the former Eastern Transvaal.
                            Homeless people of Nyanga and Crossroads
                              scored one moral victory after the other

          The care for ‘illegal’ Black women by Celeste Santos, a former ‘White’ nun, gave dignity to the shack dwellers of the informal settlements of Modderdam, KTC and Crossroads. (Celeste ‘illegally’ married Rommel Roberts, a ‘Coloured’ candidate for the Roman Catholic priesthood. The couple had only been married in church and not legally in terms of South African Law, which prohibited marriage across the racial divide. Thus she could not adopt his surname.) The compassion and concern of individual Christians like Susan Conjwa, Rommel Roberts, Celeste Santos and her friend Nomangezi Mbobosi - whose shack was subsequently burnt down by hate-filled ‘Blacks’ who could not palate her friendship to a ‘White’ - were major catalysts to this end.
          We returned to Germany and Holland in June 1981, unaware of the effect, which our involvement in Crossroads and Nyanga would continue to have. Only many years later did I read of how the homeless people of Nyanga and Crossroads had scored one moral victory after the other, encouraging many ‘Blacks’ to resist the oppressive race policies.
Church Defiance of Apartheid                                                                                                                     The plight and determination of the women of KTC, Nyanga and Crossroads played a role in another sense. Churches hereafter started to take a clearer stand in opposition to Apartheid laws. Rev. Rob Robertson and our friend Rev. Douglas Bax played a crucial role in the political stand of the Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa as a denomination (PCSA).[29] In the end newspaper posters lined the Johannesburg streets with massive black letters: CHURCH TO DEFY MARRIAGE LAW.  A few Presbyterian ministers married a number of racially mixed couples. The marriages were registered and kept in the central office of the PCSA. When other Churches also supported the Assembly’s decision on the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, this sparked a political debate that even­tually led in 1985 to the abolition of this keystone of Apartheid legislation and with it also the notorious section 16 of the Immorality Act which prohibited sexual intercourse between ‘Whites’ and any other race.

Upheaval after a Call for Prayer                                                                                                              The year 1984 could be regarded as the start of a new season of significant spiritual upheaval.  Many Christians supported the call of Dr Allan Boesak at the SACC national conference of 1984 to pray for the ‘abolition of all apartheid structures’ and for ‘the end to unjust rule’. A year later, in the run-up to the anniversary of the 16th of June Soweto tragedy, Christians were summoned to pray via a statement prepared by the Western Province Council of Churches that was called a ‘Theological Rationale’. This was in essence a cautious moderate document with an inclusive character, intended to achieve consensus, ending with a pledge - an invitation to pray for a new and just order in South Africa. The yoke of repression appeared to increase. Racial tension escalated towards a major climax. Amidst brutalities and repression which took place nearly every day, a group of pastors and theologians in Soweto came together to reflect on Christian ministry in such a situation.   
            Through a process of discussion and consultation with an ever widening group of Christians of all races, a document took shape that was issued on 25 September 1985 as the Kairos Document.                     Some people interpreted this document as a blanket endorsement of violence.  On the other hand, it encouraged many of those who had abandoned the Church as an irrelevant institution that supports, justifies and legitimizes this cruel apartheid system.  They began to feel that if the Church becomes the Church as expounded in the Kairos Document, then they would return to the Church. The document has a divisive character and has therefore to be regarded as basically diabolic.

Seeds of Confession start to germinate                                                                                                       In the early 1980s Dr Nico Smith - from Crossroads and Stellenbosch fame - visited Holland.  He resided in Bilthoven, only a few kilometres from Zeist where we were living at the time. (Smith had been more or less forced to resign from his post as professor, and saw the call to the Black congregation from Mamelodi near Pretoria as a special blessing. Living in the township as pastor of that church was a powerful witness, defying the prescript of apartheid Group Areas legislation.)  I visited him in Bilthoven after reading in a newspaper that he was in Holland. This resulted in some correspondence, among others with him and Professor Johan Heyns.
                                    The metamorphosis of Prof. Johan Heyns
                                    continued dramatically in the ensuing years
The metamorphosis of Prof. Johan Heyns continued dramatically in the ensuing years, when he chaired a synod commission called Church and Society. At the 1986 ‘White’ General Synod in Cape Town, the report of this commission almost brought the ‘White’ sector of the Dutch Reformed Church to a 180 degree change with respect to apartheid. At the synod the seed of confession appeared to have started to germinate. In the policy document ‘Church and Society’ it was formulated in so many words that ‘a forced separation and division of peoples cannot be considered a biblical imperative. The attempt to justify such an injunction as derived from the Bible must be recognized as an error, to be rejected.’                                                                                          Yet, this position was not supported by rank and file church members. Right-wing elements were perturbed that Church and Society actually included confession of sin with regard to the part played by the churches - for example - in causing suffering through the implementation of apartheid. In 1987 the reaction, formulated under Professor W. J. G. Lubbe in a document called ‘Geloof en Protes’ (Faith and Protest), laid bare a weakness of the majority decision: ‘It is also the question whether this confession of sin is really derived from true remorse or whether it is derived from a desire to please certain churches … and thus evoking an artificially created consciousness of guilt’. The 1986 synod thus ushered in the formation of a right-wing racist break-away denomination, the Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk.
Initiatives for Reconciliation                                                                                                                                              Another mighty move of God in the mid-1980s was the National Initiative for Reconciliation. In a sense this was a spin-off of SACLA (1979), but it was also a result of the political tension of 1985 - when the country seemed to be rushing towards the precipice of civil war. This initiative ran concurrently with the moves towards the Kairos Document. Michael Cassidy, the leader of Africa Enterprise, had issued a ‘Statement of intent’ on 18 July 1985.  From 10-12 September 1985, four hundred Christian leaders, drawn from 48 denominations, cleared their diaries and cancelled engagements to come to Pietermaritzburg for three days of consultation and the inauguration of the National Initiative for Reconciliation (NIR).                                                                                                                                           The call for a national day of prayer by this group to be held on October 9, was fairly widely followed, but not yet across racial barriers. The Kairos Document caused some confusion, especially among people of colour.
                            More than thirteen hundred people
                            gathered in a lunch-hour service
                            at Cape Town’s St George’s Cathedral
Nevertheless, on 9 October 1985 more than thirteen hundred people gathered in a lunch-hour service at Cape Town’s St George’s Cathedral and there were reports of Christians of all denominations meeting in one another’s churches to pray together. ‘In Cape Town we broke out of our islands as never before.’ However, the harsh repression by the government and its agents continued unabatedly.                                              A group of ‘Black concerned evangelicals’ met in September 1985 to discuss how the crisis in South Africa affected their lives. They produced a shattering critique of the evangelical tradition, asserting that ‘born again’ believers have turned out to be the ‘worst racists, oppressors and exploiters.’ The document which became known as the ‘Evangelical Witness’ was emphatic that there can be no peace without justice. Yet another evangelical gathering was organised, this time by the Evangelical Fellowship of South Africa (EFSA) at Hekpoort in Gauteng in October, with the purpose of providing guidelines for evangelical action in the midst of the crisis in the country. The rift among theologians – more or less along racial lines – appeared to be as wide as ever before.
          The Belhar Confession of October 1986 was the next document to reverberate throughout the country, well beyond its original constituency, the Dutch Reformed Church family. Its stated intent was to initiate ‘a continuous process of soul-searching together’ and a ‘readiness to repent for the sake of reconciliation and unity in the Dutch Reformed Churches’. However, the polemic elements in the document jeopardised the stated intention of stimulating repentance and remorse. In fact, decades later it was still a bone of contention in the Reformed family of churches.

Intense Research into spiritual Matters
In 1987 the Lord led the group in Pretoria to do more intense research into spiritual matters. In that same year, a similar initiative started spontaneously all over the world. The Lord also called pastors in South Africa to start writing on prayer. Books appeared concerning this issue.
          Gerda Leithgöb requested prayer warriors from other countries at a conference in Singapore in 1988 to pray for South Africa, which had been in constant crisis since 1985. Ds. Bennie Mostert founded a national prayer network known as NUPSA (Network for United Prayer in Southern Africa) which became closely linked to the spiritual transformation of the continent. In 1993 the first teams started praying through information gained from serious research. During 1993 South Africa also participated in the Pray through the Window[30] initiative that was launched internationally by the AD 2000 Prayer Track. 

12.  Late 20th Century Fore-runners of Revival

          The Apartheid brutality of the mid-1980s ultimately led to its downfall. Churchmen from the disadvantaged races traversed another route, one that could be summarised by Black Consciousness, Black Power and revolution. In the gangster-ridden township of Kewtown, a missional initiative evolved.
          The growth of the United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the results of the Apartheid oppression, but it signalled also the expansion of diverse variations of radicalism. The opposition was fed by the domino effect of Communism in various parts of Africa. Namibia was birthed and ‘Black’ rule had become a fact in Zimbabwe. The success of Ayatollah Khomeini rebounded into Bo-Kaap where a graffiti slogan on a wall proclaimed ‘the only solution is an Islamic revolution.’ 

Community Disruption leads to Missions
BABS (Build a Better Society) was a local community organisation of Kewtown, a gangster-ridden Cape Township.  In 1982 the gangs of Kewtown killed seven people in 3 months. After approaching other organisations without success, BABS asked the local Docks Mission Church to do something about the situation. A coffee bar was started especially for the gangsters, led by Rodney Thorne and Freddy Kammies. Every Sunday evening between sixty and eighty of them attended. Many of the gang leaders were challenged to put down the weapons and guns. Soon the crime rate came down. The nearby Docks Mission congregation faithfully prayed for the ministry which continued for quite a long time.              
          The ministry sowed seed for missions. Eugene Johnson was the first missionary sent out by Docks Mission in 1978 on one of the Operation Mobilisation (OM) ships already in 1978. Quite a few young people from that denomination would follow suite in subsequent years.

A Gale catapults an Evangelist into Prominence                                                                                
The destruction of a gigantic tent by a gale in the mid-1980s in which the German-born evangelist Reinhardt Bonnke would hold an evangelistic campaign in the Cape Township of Valhalla Park, created much interest for the event. The organisers were forced to conduct the campaign in the open. Thousands attended who would never have fitted into the gigantic tent. Instead of the planned 15 nights, four extra nightly services were added amid clear skies in mid-June, in the Cape rainy season.
            There was an unprecedented networking
            of Cape township churches
The networking of township churches in the run-up to this campaign was unprecedented. There was an unusual response at the altar calls. Many Muslims gave an indication that they wanted to become followers of Jesus. However, lack of proper follow-up by the churches prevented a massive spiritual turn-around at the Cape. A sequel of the gale in Valhalla Park and the campaign was that Reinhardt Bonnke became a household name throughout the African continent and beyond.

Divine Intervention
Brute enforcement of influx legislation in the late 1970s and early 1980s at the Modderdam informal settlement and Crossroads ultimately led to the first major defeat of the Apartheid legislators. The requirement that ‘Blacks’ needed to carry special passes was relaxed. The ‘illegal’ presence of Rosemarie and me at the Cape in the first half of 1981 – living for three months with another racially mixed couple, Rommel Roberts and his wife Celeste Santos, in a ‘White’ residential area - was in a similar way a catalyst to the ultimate scrapping of the prohibition on mixed marriages and the influx legislation. It was quite significant at the time but it did not satisfy opponents. One opposition leader, Frederik van Zyl Slabbert, said Mr. Botha’s reforms were the political equivalent of rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic.
          The brutality of police in the mid-1980s, which came to the fore especially in the shooting at children who were running away, ignited reprisals. Speeches at funerals by certain church leaders were tantamount to incitement towards violent reprisals. (The majority of the cases of gross human rights violations before the 1996 Truth and Reconciliation Commission were perpetrated between 1985 and 1990.) God seemed to have over-ruled when P.W. Botha, the State President, suffered a mild stroke on 18 January 1989. On 14 August Mr F.W. De Klerk, a low-key Cabinet Minister but the leader of the Transvaal NP, succeeded P.W. Botha as party leader and ultimately also as State President. Many saw God’s over-ruling hand in this move.
          The rise of the eloquent Dr Desmond Tutu and Dr Allan Boesak    in their respective denominations in the 1970s gave the Church in the country a strong voice. Also nationally and even internationally the two church leaders would receive great recognition. The former received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1984 and the latter was elected President of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in 1982, a position he held until 1991. The two were the spokesman of the Church when Mr F.W. de Klerk had become the new State President in 1989.
          A mammoth march took place on Wednesday 13 September 1989 in the Mother City. After a short      service of ‘peace and mourning’ at St George’s Cathedral, thirty thousand people packed the streets en route to the Grand Parade. The city was witnessing its largest and most peaceful march since the one led by Philip Kgosana in 1960. Unlike most political demonstrations since 1960, not a single uniformed policeman was in visible attendance. Archbishop Tutu declared victoriously: ‘We are a new people, a rainbow people, marching to freedom’. This event sparked more overt expressions of opposition to the government all over the country. President De Klerk’s turn around – to allow the march - was prepared by 13 years of urban turmoil and economic recession, all of which spawned illegal strikes, unemployment and a more militant trade unionism with the formation of COSATU, led by Cyril Ramaphosa, the new Souh African President in 2018, at the helm.                  
          Internationally the era of perestroika had arrived in Eastern Europe. The march to freedom looked unstoppable. But what few people were aware of – a wave of prayer for the country had been set in motion already in 1976. On that very June 16, 1976 – the day that sparked of the revolutionary subsequent events, a young policeman was posted in Soweto. Supernaturally God would use Johan Botha 18 years later to bring many in the nation to pray when civil war seemed inevitable.

A Confession helps to topple Apartheid
It would probably be safe to say that the 40 years of apartheid oppression - combined with prophetic actions between 1948 and 1988 - helped to conscientise the poor and the oppressed. Thus the situation was radicalised towards the inevitable conflict.  The revolutionary situation after 1985 possibly influenced the pragmatic new presidential incumbent - F.W. De Klerk - towards a more reasonable approach. Such a scenario also calls for more prayer. We can safely surmise that more people were praying for an end to the killings and violence than at other times.
         At the interdenominational prayer meetings of the ‘Regiogebed’ in Zeist (Holland), an application of the concerts of prayer, we prayed for local issues, for missionaries who left from our area but also for other countries. In 1989 we prayed especially for Communist countries, notably for the German Democratic Republic, Hungary and Romania. We were really encouraged by the news that came through from Leipzig in East Germany. Christians there seemed to have become the vanguards of the surge towards real democracy.
            God works in mysterious ways his wonders to perform! Unwittingly I was preparing my return to Africa, to my dear Heimat at that. On 4 October 1989 I wrote a letter of confession to President De Klerk, the newly inducted president, after I had become inwardly convicted because of my activism and arrogance. (Over the years I had written quite a few letters to the presidential incumbent’s predecessors and to some of the Cabinet ministers, the bulk of them found in Honger na Geregtigheid, accessible at
                                                A prayer meeting was devoted to
                                                praying for my beloved country.
At our ‘regiogebed’ meeting of 4 October 1989, I mentioned in passing to someone that I had posted a letter to President De Klerk that day.  Spontaneously, a teacher from the nearby town who was no regular at our prayer meetings, overheard this. He promptly suggested that we should pray for South Africa. Nobody objected. That must have been supernatural guidance. The whole prayer meeting was hereafter devoted to praying for my beloved country. That was the only occasion when we prayed so intensely for a single country.                                     
            Nobody present at the prayer meeting was aware that President De Klerk would meet Archbishop Tutu and Dr Allan Boesak the following week. That strategic meeting became in a sense a watershed in the politics of the country, the prelude to the release of Nelson Mandela and the end of apartheid. In other countries also, but especially in South Africa, people had been praying for a change in the suicidal direction of the political system.

More Church Opposition to Apartheid                                                                                       
After accepting a call to a ‘Black’ Dutch Reformed Church in Africa congregation in the ‘Black’ township Mamelodi (outside Pretoria), Dr Nico Smith continued to play a prominent role in the church unity process nationally. Smith’s involvement with the Koinonia Movement (which he had founded) and residing in Mamelodi thereafter were significant contributions in the struggle for justice in opposition to Apartheid. Dr Nico Smith brought Christians from the various races into homes from a different one with his Koinonia organization. He thus sowed seed that united the Church on biblical grounds.
          Church opposition to Apartheid would ultimately lead to a big conference in Rustenburg in November 1990. This event became a major catalyst of change in the country at large.  Rev. Michael Cassidy was an important role player in the convening of this conference.

Confession as a Revival Instrument
Confession is an important element of prayer as a vital ingredient towards revival. The rebirth of the Jewish nation after the exile was prepared by the intercessory prayers of Nehemiah (1:6-9), Ezra (9:6-13) and Daniel (9:9-19). All three of them concentrated on the spiritual condition of the nation and confession of sins.    
In revivals through the ages, prayer has always been the basis. In these cases prayer brought about a consciousness of sin, which invariably led to confession and restitution.  Andrew Murray opined: ‘an essential element in a true missionary revival will be a broken heart and a contrite spirit in view of past neglect and sin’. In the widely known revival in Kwa Siza Bantu (in Kwazulu Natal), the Holy Spirit broke through when Rev Erlo Stegen, the founding leader, confessed his racial pride. He discerned that he was lacking neighbourly love towards the Zulus. The revival at the non-denominational mission station reached out to people of all racial and cultural groups, bringing a message of repentance and hope, as well as providing spiritual guidance, educational support and counselling. The Kwa Siza Bantu ministry originated in South Africa, but has grown to include centers in several countries, most notably Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Russia, Romania, Australia and the United States. A daughter fellowship was started near to Malmesbury in the Cape on a farm where many a drug addict saw his/her life transformed.
         It can be argued quite convincingly that the Rustenburg Confession of 1990, verbalised at the conference in the Northwest Province that represented the Body of Christ in South Africa unprecedentedly, ushered in the ideological demise of Apartheid and the subsequent democratic era in our country.
         In recent years a biographical film Faith like Potatoes depicted how Angus Buchan, an ordinary Natal farmer, experienced an amazing personal revival and then began to impact the lives of many others. His Mighty Men Conferences and other revival events would impact thousands in subsequent years.

New Mega Churches established
In 1988 His People Ministries started at UCT with Sunday afternoon services in the Robert Leslie Building and later conducted them in the Baxter Theatre, usually led by Paul Daniel. In due course this institution became a blessing to many a country as missionaries left the Cape shores to plant fellowships elsewhere. Glen Robertson, a young musician, also became converted at the Lighthouse. At His People he developed an extensive music ministry and he would play a pivotal role in the Newlands mass events from 2001. His People Ministries grew into a multi-congregation church in the city with its main meeting venue a complex seating 4000+ at N1 City, Goodwood, a Cape northern suburb.
          In a parallel move of the Holy Spirit, Neville McDonald was affected. Along with the Cape-born Derek Golding, who soon joined McDonald, a fellowship was started at the former Three Arts theatre complex. After a few years this building became too small. A large new facility around a warehouse in Ottery became known as the Good Hope Christian Centre, with daughter fellowships of their own in due course.
           A group of charismatic believers branched off amicably from the Wynberg Baptist Church, to form the Vineyard Church.  Under Pastor Simon Petit, the fellowship grew rapidly, moving into the Waverley blanket factory, with satellite congregations at other venues, such as in the Cape Town High School and in Khayelitsha.  The new denomination has links to Terry Virgo from Britain and his New Frontiers team.
             They received a request to change their name to Jubilee Church in 1993 to distinguish them from the fellowship, which had links to the internationally known John Wimber, and which was known as the Vineyard Church.
            Hillsong, a denomination with roots in Australia, came to the Cape, starting in the new Convention Centre. In due course they had their own premises at the Century City compound. In the suburb of Ottery a new megachurch arose in the new millennium called Desire of all Nations.
            There were also Cape congregations linked to so-called mainline denominations which grew significantly. The two Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM) churches of Goodwood and Bellville belong to this category.

Prayer guiding the difficult Transition
President F.W. de Klerk put into place the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) already in February 1990. This was what Dr Beyers Naudé and his Christian Institute had been pleading for many years. From the earliest meetings the good rapport De Klerk seemed to have with the leader of the unbanned ANC, the freshly released Nelson Mandela, augured well for the future of the country. There was however a big gulf between De Klerk and his Afrikaner constituency, which manifested itself in a humiliating defeat of the ruling NP at the hands of the Conservative Party in a Potchefstroom by-election at the beginning of 1992. The pragmatic State President, who was clearly bent on preserving ‘White’ power, decided to flee forwards.
          When President F.W. de Klerk announced a ‘Whites’-only referendum on 20 February 1992, it was still unclear in which direction the country would go. The possibility of unprecedented civil war could definitely not be ruled out. The ‘Whites’ were asked to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to the question: ‘Do you support continuation of the reform process which the State President began on February 2, 1990 and which is aimed at a new constitution?’
                                               The success of the Proteas
                                      possibly influenced the referendum.

Sports as a Pivot for Change
The success of the national cricket team at the World Cup tournament in Australia at that time possibly influenced the vote decisively. A ‘no’ vote would most certainly have sent the country back into the sporting wilderness. The latter possibility was for many in the sports loving country too ghastly to contemplate! (This formulation was a dictum coined by Mr B.J. Vorster, a previous Prime Minister, for the civil war option.)  With a resounding ‘yes’ - 68% - from all corners of the country, Mr de Klerk was given a mandate on 17 March, 1992, to negotiate a new constitution with African National Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela.

Friday Lunchtime Prayer Meetings
Prayer walks in Bo-Kaap resulted in the resumption of a fortnightly prayer meeting in mid-1992 in the home of Cecilia Abrahams, the widow of a Muslim background believer in Wale Street. The prayer meetings focused on reversing the effect of Apartheid on Bo-Kaap.  
          At the prayer meetings in Bo-Kaap in the home of the Abrahams family at 73 Wale Street, Liz Campbell (nee Robertson) and Achmed Kariem were regulars from the beginning. This had an Isaac-Israel component because these two believers have a love for both Jews and Muslims just like us.
          At one of these meetings, Achmed Kariem suggested a lunchtime prayer meeting on Fridays, at the same time that Muslims attend their mosque services. Such prayer events started in September 1992 in the Shepherd’s Watch, a small church hall at 98 Shortmarket Street near Heritage Square.

A special Impact on (Cape) Jewry
When the Bo-Kaap prayer meeting in the Abrahams’ home in Wale Street was changed to a monthly meeting, it made room for a prayer event where intercession for the Middle East was the focus. The new monthly meeting - at our home in Tamboerskloof and later in the suburb Vredehoek from 1994 - also included prayer for the Jews, those in Israel as well as those in Cape Town. The catalyst for the Jewish part of the prayer meeting was Elizabeth Robertson, whom God had used to stir the Jews of Sea Point in 1990. She had been confronted at that time with a very difficult choice when she was about to convert to Judaism, in preparation for her marriage to an Israeli national. Her autobiography The Choice made an impact on Cape Jewry when it was published in 2003. Elizabeth writes about the predicament into which the rabbi put her in the final interview of the procedure before she was about to convert to Judaism. She described the turmoil with the following words:
I cleared my throat to speak, when unexpectedly an anointing fell upon me, and I found myself asking if I might go on my knees. A holy boldness overtook me and in a loud, firm voice, with an authority that shocked even me, I heard myself saying: “To me Jesus Christ is the Son of God! He is the one who died for me,” then, pointing at the rabbis one by one, “and for you and for you and for you. He is the Messiah. He was born of a virgin, and His blood cleanses all of our sins. This is who I believe Jesus Christ is!”  I then collapsed onto the floor in a sobbing heap.
The unexpected choice of Elizabeth Robertson shook Cape Jewry. Surprisingly, she was encouraged by   Jews to publish her special story.

The Goodwill of promising Beginnings evaporate
Much of the goodwill of the promising beginnings seemed to evaporate after 1992 during the transition to democratic government. In Kwazulu, a simmering condition of civil war had been prevailing for years. The tension between ANC followers and those of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) was just waiting for the final igniting of the proverbial powder keg. The apparent if perhaps not intentional simultaneous side-lining of Dr Mangusuthu Buthelezi and his IFP in the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) talks spelled danger. At the infamous Boipatong massacre on 17 June 1992 in the Vaal triangle 46 township residents were massacred by local Zulu hostel-dwellers.  The latter were believed to have been Inkatha followers of Dr Buthelezi, highlighting how volatile the situation still was. Over the Easter weekend of 1993, the country seemed to have been pushed to the precipice of major racial conflict. On 10 April, 1993, the news reverberated throughout the country that the outspoken communist Chris Hani, who had been groomed for a top position in a possible ANC-led government, had been assassinated. The fact that a ‘White’ woman provided information leading to the prompt arrest of the alleged perpetrators, two right-wing activists, helped to lower the political temperature momentarily, but the situation remained extremely tense. The death of an American exchange student and other terrorist incidents made clear that matters were very serious.
            But satan overplayed his hand a few months later. The St James Church massacre of July 1993 in the Cape suburb of Kenilworth, when terrorists stormed into the sanctuary, killing and maiming several people, turned out to be the instrument par excellence to impact the movement towards racial reconciliation in the country. Those family members who lost dear ones received divine grace to forgive the brutal killers. The killing of innocent people during a church service sparked off an unprecedented urgency for prayer all around the country.

Special Operations from Cape Townships    
The Bless the Nations conferences influenced the Cape Church quite deeply. Bruce van Eeden, a pastor from Mitchells Plain who was powerfully touched in 1990, started Great Commission Conferences in ‘Coloured’ areas. After ministering at one of these conferences in 1992, Rosemarie and I became involved with children’s ministry at the Newfields Clinic where Van Eeden was pastoring an Evangelical Bible Church congregation.
                                    Law enforcement agents could
                                    not handle the criminality
At this time I participated in the establishment of Operation Hanover Park. The stimulus for the latter operation was given by Everett Crowe, a police officer, who approached the churches in a last-ditch effort to secure peace in the township Hanover Park that seemed to be ruled by gangsters. The law enforcement agents could not handle the criminality in the area any more. Operation Hanover Park was led by Pastor Jonathan Matthews of the Blomvlei Baptist Church as the main driving force behind the initiative. The City Mission Saturday afternoon prayer meeting was the precursor to the monthly prayer meeting of Operation Hanover Park towards the end of 1992.
          Operation Hanover Park involved believers of diverse church backgrounds who prayed together. Dean Ramjoomia, a Muslim background believer, was eager to operate among the gangsters as the local missionary of the churches. Blomvlei Baptist Church offered the Ramjoomia family accommodation on the church premises and a few other churches pledged financial contributions. Things looked quite promising. Furthermore, it seemed as if our vision - to get local churches networking in missions and evangelism - was coming to fruition. At least, this was how it appeared! At the same time, this would also give an example to believers in other parts of the country to combat criminality and violence – through united prayer and action! That was however not to be. Operation Hanover Park was on the verge of achieving an early version of community transformation at the beginning of 1993 when a leadership tussle stifled the promising movement.

A Cape Catalyst into the Ten Forty Window
The first Love Southern Africa Conference was held in Wellington in 1993, with the Nigerian Panja Baba and OM's international leader George Verwer as the main speakers. This coincided with the renovation of the OM ship the Doulos in the Cape Town harbour. The ship's young people were hosted privately all over the Cape Peninsula, spreading blessings wherever they served.
          Pastor Bruce van Eeden passionately wanted to see South Africans involved in missionary work. The Lord laid India and China on his heart. In 1995 he started a Mitchell’s Plain-based mission agency called Ten Forty Outreach, which concentrated on sending out short-term workers to India. For three months a year Pastor van Eeden went to India to minister, partnering with Indian believers and taking with him volunteers from South Africa. There are now many Indian national evangelists and pastors who got linked to the mission agency. From the outset Pastor van Eeden made it clear to the Christians in India that they should not expect funding from outside their own country. He did not want to see the dependency syndrome repeated as it happened in so many African countries.

Other Types of Revival Seed
Various types of ‘Revival Seed’ were sowed during the 1990s, notably via various prayer networks, e.g. NUPSA (Network of United Prayer in Southern Africa) and its successor Jericho Walls. Both of them networked closely with the AD2000 & Beyond Movement. (The AD2000 & Beyond Movement first gained attention at the international missions conference Lausanne II in Manila in 1989. The Movement then spread rapidly around the globe to help catalyse evangelism plans that focused on the year AD 2000.)
The AD2000 & Beyond Movement spread the vision for reaching the "10/40 Window," a region first identified by the movement's international director, Luis Bush. (The 10/40 Window is the rectangular area of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia between 10 degrees north and 40 degrees north latitude where 95 percent of the world's least-evangelized poor are found.) The AD2000 prayer initiatives called Praying through the Window, mobilized many intercessors to pray for the 10/40 Window over several years.
            Operation Desert Storm, popularly known as the first Gulf War, was the successful U.S.-Allied response to the attempt of Saddam Hussain’s Iraq to overwhelm neighboring Kuwait. It had a significant impact. Many a Christian soldier distributed Arabic Bibles when the Allied troops moved around the Middle East. Coming so fairly after the fall of the Soviet Empire and their successful seven year prayer campaign, Open Doors also launched a new campaign of 10 years of prayer for the Muslim world. Gathering secretly in Egypt in 1992, mission leaders furthermore came up with the idea of the Muslim Prayer Focus that was distributed around Ramadan in the years hereafter. The Twin Tower event of September 11, 2001 would usher in the ideological demise of Islam, highlighting its intrinsic demonic violent nature. On 25 January 2011 the Arab Spring in Egypt would become a significant game changer, followed by millions of Muslims turning their back on Islam.


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